II. Physiology: Neuromuscular - Sensory

  1. Sensory feedback is critical to maintaining continuous fluid movement that balances various motor Neuron inputs
  2. Golgi Tendon Organs (Neurotendinous Spindle)
    1. Detect Muscle tendon tension
    2. Measures combination of Muscle Contraction against the resistance of opposing forces (gravity, antagonist Muscles)
    3. Triggers a reduction in Muscle tension by allowing further Muscle stretch
  3. Muscle Spindles
    1. Wrap intrafusal Muscle fibers
      1. Small Muscle fibers primarily for stretch detection
        1. Intrafusal Muscle fibers are innervated by gamma Motor Neurons
      2. Contrast with the extrafusal Muscle fibers, the primary, major Muscle fibers of motor activity
        1. Extrafusal Muscle fibers are innervated by alpha Motor Neurons
        2. Alpha and gamma Neurons typically fire together, keeping extrafusal and intrafusal Muscles in sync
    2. Detect Muscle stretch (and the speed of Muscle stretch)
      1. Transmit stretch Sensation to the spinal cord and Cerebellum
      2. Increased detected Muscle stretch drives increased counter Muscle Contraction
        1. Rapidly increased stretch, results in stronger signaling for Muscle Contraction
        2. Deep Tendon Reflexes generate a rapid stretch impulse with an exaggerated Muscle Contraction
    3. Primary nerve endings (Type 1A, Annulospiral)
      1. Detect degree and rate of Muscle stretch
    4. Secondary nerve endings (Type 2)
      1. Detect degree of Muscle stretch
  4. Other sensory input
    1. Joint capsule and ligament receptors

III. Physiology: Neuromuscular - Motor and Muscle Contraction

  1. Antagonistic Muscles are inhibited during Muscle Contraction
    1. Triceps Muscle is inhibited during biceps flexion
    2. Hamstring Muscles are inhibited during quadriceps flexion
  2. Striated Muscle
    1. Muscle Cells or Fibers are composed of hundreds of Myofibrils
    2. Myofibrils are divided into repeated sections of Sarcomeres
    3. Sarcomeres are composed of overlapping myosin filaments and actin filaments
      1. Each Sarcomere is bordered by a Z-Disc on each end
      2. Actin filaments are attached to each Z-Disc
        1. Actin filaments do not extend completely between the Z-Discs
        2. A gap (H Band) divides the actin filaments facing one another
      3. Myosin filaments extend between the Z-Discs
        1. Myosin is not attached to the Z-Discs, leaving a space around each Z-Disc (I band)
        2. Myosin overlaps the actin filaments and appears as an A band
    4. Muscle Cells have additional specialized components
      1. Sarcoplasmic Reticulum (see below)
      2. Large number of mitochondria for ATP supply to fuel Muscle Contractions
  3. Motor units
    1. Motor Units represent a peripheral motor Neuron's branches and the Muscle Cells they innervate
    2. Neuromuscular Junction
      1. Neuron branches terminate at motor end plates (concentrated at center of Muscle Cells)
      2. When Motor Neurons fire, they typically release acetylcholine at the motor endplate
        1. Strength and duration of Muscle Contraction is related to repetitive Muscle fiber discharges
      3. Acetylcholine acts at cell membrane of Transverse Tubule (T-Tubule)
        1. T-Tubules are deep invaginations into the Muscle Cell
        2. Acetylcholine (and other stimuli) trigger changes in Muscle cell Membrane Potential
      4. Action Potential propagates along the cell membrane from Muscle Cell center to its periphery
      5. Acetylcholinesterase within neuromuscular junction inactivates acetylcholine
        1. Prevents prolonged acetylcholine activity at the motor end plate
    3. Sarcoplasmic Reticulum
      1. Sarcoplasmic Reticulum is a specialized endoplasmic reticulum, positioned between the T-Tubules
      2. Sarcoplasmic Reticulum contains large concentrations of Calcium
      3. When triggered by Action Potential, Calcium is released into the Muscle Cell
      4. In cardiac Muscle Cells, interstitial fluid Calcium also influxes into the cell
    4. Muscle Contraction
      1. Increased Muscle Cell Calcium triggers Actin and Myosin to increase their overlap
    5. Muscle Relaxation
      1. Muscle Cell Calcium returns to the Sarcoplasmic Reticulum
      2. With normalization of cell Calcium, actin and myosin assume a rest position

IV. References

  1. Goldberg (2014) Clinical Physiology, Medmaster, Miami, p. 90-5

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Related Studies

Ontology: Muscle (C0026845)

Definition (FMA) Nonparenchymatous organ that primarily consists of skeletal muscle tissue aggregated into macroscopic fasciculi by connective tissue; together with other muscles, it constitutes the muscular system. Examples: biceps, diaphragm, masseter, right third external intercostal muscle, external oblique, levator ani, serratus anterior.
Definition (MSHCZE) Kontraktilní tkáň umožňující pohyb živočichů.
Definition (UWDA) Nonparenchymatous organ that primarily consists of skeletal muscle tissue aggregated into macroscopic fasciculi by connective tissue; together with other muscles, it constitutes the muscular system. Examples: biceps, diaphragm, masseter, right third external intercostal muscle, external oblique, levator ani, serratus anterior.
Definition (NCI) One of the contractile organs of the body.
Definition (NCI_CDISC) A fibrous soft tissue with the ability to contract to produce force and motion.
Definition (NCI) Tissue responsible for the body movements and the shape and size changes of interna organs. Muscle tissue is composed of specialized contractile cells. There are two types of muscle tissue recognized:striated and smooth muscle. The striated muscle tissue is further subdivided into skeletal, visceral striated, and cardiac muscle.
Definition (MSH) Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.
Definition (CSP) contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.
Concepts Tissue (T024)
MSH D009132
SnomedCT 91727004, 71616004, 79984008
LNC LP32940-6, LP20705-7, LP33444-8, MTHU016812
English Muscle, Muscles, Muscle (organ), Muscular, muscle (tissue), Muscle organ, Musculus, muscle (organ), muscles organs, muscle, muscle tissue, musculus, muscles, MUSCLE, Muscle tissue, Muscle tissue (body structure), Muscle, NOS, Muscles, NOS, Muscle Tissue
French Muscle, Muscles
Swedish Muskler
Czech svaly
Finnish Lihakset
Russian MYSHTSY, МЫШЦЫ
Croatian MIŠIĆI
Latvian Muskuļi
Polish Mięśnie
Norwegian Musculi, Muskler
Spanish tejido del músculo (estructura corporal), tejido del músculo, tejido muscular, Músculos
German Muskeln
Italian Muscoli
Dutch Spier, Spieren
Portuguese Músculos

Ontology: Myofibrils (C0027075)

Definition (MSH) The long cylindrical contractile organelles of STRIATED MUSCLE cells composed of ACTIN FILAMENTS; MYOSIN filaments; and other proteins organized in arrays of repeating units called SARCOMERES .
Definition (CSP) highly organized bundles of actin, myosins, and other proteins in the cytoplasm of skeletal and cardiac muscle cells that contract by a sliding filament mechanism; they are composed of numerous myofilaments.
Definition (GO) The contractile element of skeletal and cardiac muscle; a long, highly organized bundle of actin, myosin, and other proteins that contracts by a sliding filament mechanism. [ISBN:0815316194]
Concepts Cell Component (T026)
MSH D009210
SnomedCT 105583006
English Myofibrils, Myofibrilla, myofibril, fibers muscle striated, striated muscle fiber, striated muscle fibre, Myofibril, Myofibril (substance), Myofibril, NOS
Swedish Myofibriller
Czech myofibrily
Finnish Myofibrillit
Russian MIOFIBRILLY, MIOFIBRILLOMER, МИОФИБРИЛЛОМЕР, МИОФИБРИЛЛЫ
Latvian Miofibrillas
Polish Miofibryle, Włókienka mięśniowe
Norwegian Myofibriller
Spanish miofibrilla (sustancia), miofibrilla, Miofibrillas
French Myofibrilles
German Myofibrillen
Italian Miofibrille
Dutch Myofibrillen
Portuguese Miofibrilas

Ontology: Muscle Spindles (C0027871)

Definition (NCI) The Muscle Spindle is composed of intrafusal fibers that are located within and run parallel to the extrafusal fibers of skeletal muscle. When the extrafusal fibers are stretched, the intrafusal fibers of the spindle stretch as well. When stretching occurs, the sensory neuron from the muscle spindle signals the motor neurons located within the ventral horn of the spinal cord. This signal causes the motor neurons to fire, resulting in contraction of the muscle. This reflex arc provides negative feedback. The muscular contraction induced by the stretching works against or negates further muscle stretch. This mechanism helps to maintain proper muscle tension or tone. Although the muscle spindle helps to maintain proper muscle tension, unlike the Golgi tendon organ, it is not an indicator of muscle tension, but rather of muscle length.
Definition (MSH) Skeletal muscle structures that function as the MECHANORECEPTORS responsible for the stretch or myotactic reflex (REFLEX, STRETCH). They are composed of a bundle of encapsulated SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS, i.e., the intrafusal fibers (nuclear bag 1 fibers, nuclear bag 2 fibers, and nuclear chain fibers) innervated by SENSORY NEURONS.
Concepts Body Part, Organ, or Organ Component (T023)
MSH D009470
SnomedCT 12945004
English Neuromuscular Spindle, Neuromuscular Spindles, Spindle, Neuromuscular, Spindles, Neuromuscular, Muscle Spindles, Spindle, Muscle, Spindles, Muscle, Muscle Stretch Receptors, Receptors, Stretch, Muscle, Stretch Receptors, Muscle, Muscle Stretch Receptor, Receptor, Muscle Stretch, Receptors, Muscle Stretch, Stretch Receptor, Muscle, RECEPT STRETCH MUSCLE, STRETCH RECEPT MUSCLE, MUSCLE STRETCH RECEPT, Neuromuscular spindle, muscle spindle, muscle spindles, neuromuscular spindles, Neuromuscular spindles, Muscle spindle, Muscle spindle (body structure), Muscle Spindle
French Récepteurs à l'étirement du muscle, Fuseau neuromusculaire, Fuseau musculaire, Fuseaux musculaires, Fuseaux neuro-musculaires, Fuseaux neuromusculaires, Mécanorécepteurs musculaires
Swedish Muskelspolar
Czech nervosvalová vřeténka
Finnish Lihaskäämit
Russian NERVNO-MYSHECHNYE VERETENA, MYSHECHNYE VERETENA, МЫШЕЧНЫЕ ВЕРЕТЕНА, НЕРВНО-МЫШЕЧНЫЕ ВЕРЕТЕНА
Polish Wrzeciona mięśniowe, Wrzeciona nerwowo-mięśniowe, Ciałka mięśniowo-nerwowe
Japanese 筋紡錘, 筋伸長受容器, 神経筋紡錘, 筋伸展受容器
Norwegian Muskelens strekkreseptorer, Muskelspoler, Muskelspindler
Portuguese Receptores Musculares de Estiramento, Fusos Musculares, Fusos Neuromusculares, Receptores de Estiramento Muscular
Spanish huso muscular (estructura corporal), huso muscular, huso neuromuscular, Husos Musculares, Husos Neuromusculares, Receptores de Estiramiento Muscular
German Dehnungsrezeptoren, Muskel, Muskeldehnungsrezeptoren, Muskelspindeln, Rezeptoren, Dehnungs-, Muskel, Neuromuskuläre Spindeln
Italian Fusi muscolari
Dutch Spierrekreceptoren, Spierspoel, Spierspoelen

Ontology: Neurotendinous Spindles (C0027929)

Definition (NCI) The Golgi Tendon Organ is located within the tendons found on each end of a muscle. It responds to increased muscle tension or contraction as exerted on the tendon, by inhibiting further muscle contraction, which protects against muscle damage. The proprioceptive sensory neuron of a Golgi tendon organ, projects to the motor neurons located within the ventral horn of the spinal cord, where the inhibition occurs. Unlike the muscle spindle, Golgi tendon organs do not indicate muscle length, but rather muscle tension.
Concepts Body Part, Organ, or Organ Component (T023)
MSH D008465
SnomedCT 72364001
English Spindle, Neurotendinous, Spindles, Neurotendinous, Golgi Tendon Organs, Organs, Golgi Tendon, Tendon Organs, Golgi, Golgi tendon organ, Neurotendinous ending, Neurotendinous organ of Golgi, golgi tendon organs, golgi tendon organ, Golgi's organ, Tendon spindle, Tendon spindle (body structure), Neurotendinous Spindle, Golgi Tendon Organ, Golgi's Tendon Organ, Golgi's Tendon Spindle, Neurotendinous Organ, Neurotendinous Spindles
Czech nervošlachová vřeténka
Portuguese Fusos Neurotendinosos, Órgãos do Tendão de Golgi
Spanish Ejes Neurotendinosos, huso neurotendinoso, huso tendinoso (estructura corporal), huso tendinoso, órgano tendinoso de Golgi, Órganos del Tendon de Golgi
French Organes neurotendineux de Golgi, Organes de Golgi, Organes neuro-tendineux de Golgi, Organes tendineux de Golgi
German Golgi-Sehnenspindel, Golgi-Sehnenorgan
Norwegian Golgi-senespole
Italian Organi tendinei del Golgi, Fusi neurotendinei
Dutch Golgi-peessensor

Ontology: Stretch Receptors (C0034841)

Definition (CSP) sense organ in a muscle or tendon that responds to elongation.
Concepts Body Part, Organ, or Organ Component (T023)
MSH D008465
SnomedCT 27600006
English Receptor, Stretch, Receptors, Stretch, Stretch Receptor, stretch receptor, STRETCH RECEPT, RECEPT STRETCH, stretch receptors, Stretch receptor, Stretch receptor (body structure), Stretch Receptors
French Récepteurs d'étirement, Récepteurs à l'étirement, Récepteurs sensibles à l'étirement
German Dehnungsrezeptoren, Rezeptoren, Dehnungs-
Norwegian Strekkreseptorer
Italian Recettori dell'allungamento, Recettori di stiramento
Spanish receptor de estiramiento (estructura corporal), receptor de estiramiento, Receptores de Estiramiento
Dutch Rekreceptoren
Portuguese Receptores de Estiramento

Ontology: Sarcolemma (C0036208)

Definition (GO) The outer membrane of a muscle cell, consisting of the plasma membrane, a covering basement membrane (about 100 nm thick and sometimes common to more than one fiber), and the associated loose network of collagen fibers. [ISBN:0198506732]
Definition (NCI) The cell membrane of a muscle cell. It is comprised of a plasma membrane coated with collagen fibers embedded in a layer of polysaccharides.
Definition (MSH) The excitable plasma membrane of a muscle cell. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
Definition (CSP) delicate plasma membrane which invests every striated muscle fiber.
Concepts Cell Component (T026)
MSH D012508
SnomedCT 91740009
English Sarcolemmas, sarcolemma, Plasma membrane of muscle cell, Sarcolemma structure (cell structure), Sarcolemma structure, Sarcolemma structure (body structure), Sarcolemma
Swedish Sarkolemma
Czech sarkolema
Finnish Sarkolemma
Russian SARKOLEMMA, САРКОЛЕММА
Latvian Sarkolemma
Polish Sarkolema
Norwegian Sarkolemm, Sarkolemma
Spanish estructura del sarcolema (estructura celular), estructura del sarcolema (estructura corporal), estructura del sarcolema, sarcolema, Sarcolema
French Membrane sarcoplasmique, Sarcolemme
German Sarkolemm
Italian Sarcolemma
Dutch Sarcolemma
Portuguese Sarcolema

Ontology: Sarcomeres (C0036225)

Definition (MSH) The repeating contractile units of the MYOFIBRIL, delimited by Z bands along its length.
Definition (NCI) The basic unit of contractility in a muscle fiber.
Definition (CSP) contractile unit of myofibrils; sarcomeres are repeating units, delimited by the Z bands along the length of the myofibril.
Definition (GO) The repeating unit of a myofibril in a muscle cell, composed of an array of overlapping thick and thin filaments between two adjacent Z discs. [ISBN:0815316194]
Concepts Cell Component (T026)
MSH D012518
English Sarcomeres, Sarcomere, sarcomeres, sarcomere
Swedish Sarkomerer
Czech sarkomery
Finnish Sarkomeerit
Russian SARKOMERY, САРКОМЕРЫ
Japanese 筋節, サルコメア, 筋板, 筋線維分節
Italian Sarcomero, Sarcomeri
Latvian Sarkomeri
Polish Sarkomery
Norwegian Sarkomerer, Sarkomer
Portuguese Miômeros, Sarcômeros
German Sarkomere
Dutch Sarcomeer, Sarcomeren
French Sarcomère, Sarcomères
Spanish Sarcómeros

Ontology: Sarcoplasmic Reticulum (C0036226)

Definition (MSH) A network of tubules and sacs in the cytoplasm of SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS that assist with muscle contraction and relaxation by releasing and storing calcium ions.
Definition (GO) A fine reticular network of membrane-limited elements that pervades the sarcoplasm of a muscle cell; continuous over large portions of the cell and with the nuclear envelope; that part of the endoplasmic reticulum specialized for calcium release, uptake and storage. [GOC:mtg_muscle, ISBN:0124325653, ISBN:0198547684]
Definition (NCI) The endoplasmic reticulum of striated muscle, specialised for the sequestration of calcium ions that are released upon receipt of a signal relayed by the T tubules from the neuromuscular junction.(On-line Medical Dictionary)
Definition (CSP) special form of agranular reticulum found in the sarcoplasm of striated muscle and comprising a system of smooth surfaced tubules forming a plexus around each myofibril.
Concepts Cell Component (T026)
MSH D012519
SnomedCT 24961002
English Reticulum, Sarcoplasmic, Reticulums, Sarcoplasmic, Sarcoplasmic Reticulum, Sarcoplasmic Reticulums, AER of striated muscle (cell structure), Apical ectodermal ridge (AER) of striated muscle, sarcoplasmic reticulum, reticulum sarcoplasmic, Apical ectodermal ridge of striated muscle (cell structure), Apical ectodermal ridge (AER) of striated muscle (cell structure), Apical ectodermal ridge of striated muscle, AER of striated muscle, Sarcoplasmic reticulum, AER of striated muscle (body structure)
Swedish Sarkoplasmatiskt retikel
Spanish retículo endoplasmático liso de músculo estriado, retículo endoplásmico liso de músculo estriado (estructura celular), retículo endoplásmico liso de músculo estriado, surco ectodérmico apical de célula de músculo estriado, surco ectodérmico apical del músculo estriado (estructura celular), surco ectodérmico apical de célula de músculo estriado (estructura celular), surco ectodérmico apical del músculo estriado, Retículo Sarcoplásmico, retículo endoplásmico liso de músculo estriado (estructura corporal), retículo sarcoplasmático, retículo sarcoplásmico, Retículo Sarcoplasmático
Czech sarkoplazmatické retikulum
Finnish Sarkoplasmakalvosto
Russian SARKOPLAZMATICHESKII RETIKULUM, SARKOPLAZMATICHESKAIA SET', САРКОПЛАЗМАТИЧЕСКАЯ СЕТЬ, САРКОПЛАЗМАТИЧЕСКИЙ РЕТИКУЛУМ
Polish Retikulum sarkoplazmatyczne, Siateczka sarkoplazmatyczna
Norwegian Sarkoplasmatisk retikulum, SR
Portuguese Retículo Sarcoplásmico, Retículo Sarcoplasmático
French Réticulum sarcoplasmique
German Sarkoplasmatisches Retikulum
Italian Reticolo sarcoplasmico
Dutch Reticulum, sarcoplasmatisch, Sarcoplasmatisch reticulum

Ontology: A band (C0230715)

Definition (GO) The dark-staining region of a sarcomere, in which myosin thick filaments are present; the center is traversed by the paler H zone, which in turn contains the M line. [ISBN:0321204131]
Concepts Cell Component (T026)
SnomedCT 51878007
English Q disc, transverse disc, anisotropic disc, A disc, A-band, Discus anisotropicus (Stria A), Anisotropic band, a band, A band, A band (cell structure), A band (body structure)
Spanish banda A (estructura celular), banda A (estructura corporal), banda A

Ontology: I band (C0230716)

Definition (GO) A region of a sarcomere that appears as a light band on each side of the Z disc, comprising a region of the sarcomere where thin (actin) filaments are not overlapped by thick (myosin) filaments; contains actin, troponin, and tropomyosin; each sarcomere includes half of an I band at each end. [ISBN:0321204131]
Concepts Cell Component (T026)
SnomedCT 50989007
English isotropic disc, I disc, J disc, Discus isotropicus (Stria I), Isotropic band, I-band, i band, I band, I band (cell structure), I band (body structure)
Spanish banda I (estructura celular), banda I (estructura corporal), banda I

Ontology: H zone (C0230717)

Definition (GO) A relatively pale zone traversing the center of the A band of a sarcomere, visible in relaxed muscle fibers; consists of the central portion of thick (myosin) filaments that are not overlapped by thin (actin) filaments. [GOC:mtg_muscle, ISBN:0321204131]
Concepts Cell Component (T026)
SnomedCT 25771000
English H band, H disc, H-band, Henson line, H-zone, Zona Lucida (Stria H), H zone, H zone (cell structure), H zone (body structure)
Spanish zona H (estructura celular), zona H (estructura corporal), zona H

Ontology: M line (C0230718)

Definition (GO) The midline of aligned thick filaments in a sarcomere; location of specific proteins that link thick filaments. Depending on muscle type the M band consists of different numbers of M lines. [GOC:mtg_muscle, ISBN:0198506732, ISBN:0815316194]
Concepts Cell Component (T026)
SnomedCT 27112006
English mesophragma, M disc, M band, M-line, M line, M line (cell structure), M line (body structure)
Spanish línea M (estructura celular), línea M (estructura corporal), línea M

Ontology: Z line (C0230719)

Definition (GO) Platelike region of a muscle sarcomere to which the plus ends of actin filaments are attached. [GOC:mtg_muscle, ISBN:0815316194]
Concepts Cell Component (T026)
SnomedCT 52301008
English Z disc, Z band, Z disk, Z-disc, Telophragma (Linea Z), Z-line, lines z, z-line, z line, Z line, Z line (cell structure), Z line (body structure)
Spanish línea Z (estructura celular), línea Z (estructura corporal), línea Z

Ontology: Muscle Cells (C0596981)

Definition (MSH) Mature contractile cells, commonly known as myocytes, that form one of three kinds of muscle. The three types of muscle cells are skeletal (MUSCLE FIBERS, SKELETAL), cardiac (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC), and smooth (MYOCYTES, SMOOTH MUSCLE). They are derived from embryonic (precursor) muscle cells called MYOBLASTS.
Definition (FMA) Somatic cell which has as direct parts of its cytoplasm myofibrils organized in various patterns.
Definition (NCI) A connective tissue cell with the ability to convert chemical energy into mechanical energy via a contractile apparatus. As part of the contractile apparatus, the proteins actin and myosin form parallel myofilaments. The interaction of actin and myosin mediates muscle cell contraction in response to stimulation of the excitable cell membrane.
Definition (CSP) mature contractile cells.
Concepts Cell (T025)
MSH D032342
French Cellules musculaires, Myocytes, Cellule musculaire, Myocyte
Swedish Muskelceller
Czech myocyty, svalové buňky diferencované, svalové buňky
English myocyte, Myocyte, Muscle cell, muscle cell, muscle cells, myocytes, cells muscle, cell muscle, Mature Muscle Cell, Mature Muscle Cells, Muscle Cell, Mature, Muscle Cells, Muscle Cells, Mature, Myocytes, Muscle cells, Muscle Cell
Finnish Lihassolut
Italian Miociti, Cellule muscolari mature, Cellule muscolari
Russian MYSHECHNYE KLETKI, MYSHECHNYE KLETKI ZRELYE, MIOTSITY, МИОЦИТЫ, МЫШЕЧНЫЕ КЛЕТКИ, МЫШЕЧНЫЕ КЛЕТКИ ЗРЕЛЫЕ
Japanese 筋細胞, 筋細胞-成熟, ミオサイト
Croatian Not Translated[Muscle Cells]
Latvian Muskuļu šūnas, Miocīti
Polish Komórki mięśniowe
Norwegian Modne muskelceller, Muskelceller, Myocytter
Spanish Células de Músculos, Miocitos, Células Musculares Maduras, Células Musculares
Portuguese Células de Músculos, Células Musculares Maduras, Células Musculares, Miócitos
German Muskelzellen, Muskelzellen, reife, Myozyten
Dutch Cellen, spier-, Myocyt, Myocyten, Spiercellen, Spiercellen, rijpe

Ontology: neuromuscular system (C0597054)

Definition (CSP) pertaining to muscles and nerves, or to the relationship between them including the synapse between a neuron and a muscle.
Concepts Body System (T022)
English neuromuscular system, neuromotor system

Ontology: Myocytes, Smooth Muscle (C1135918)

Definition (FMA) Muscle cell which has as its direct parts myofilaments attached to cytoplasmic dense bodies.
Definition (NCI) An elongated spindle-shaped contractile cell, peculiar to an involuntary muscle, containing a single nucleus and longitudinally arranged myofibrils.
Definition (MSH) Non-striated, elongated, spindle-shaped cells found lining the digestive tract, uterus, and blood vessels. They are derived from specialized myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, SMOOTH MUSCLE).
Definition (GO) The contractile fiber of smooth muscle cells. [GOC:mah]
Concepts Cell (T025)
MSH D032389
English Smooth Muscle Cell, Smooth Muscle Tissue Cell, smooth muscle contractile fiber, smooth muscle fibre, smooth muscle fiber, Smooth muscle myocyte, Smooth muscle cell, Myocyte of smooth muscle, Smooth muscle tissue cell, Non-striated muscle fiber, Leiomyocyte, Myocytus nonstriatus, Smooth muscle fiber, smooth muscle myocytes, smooth muscle cell, cells muscle smooth, smooth muscle cells, Cell, Smooth Muscle, Cells, Smooth Muscle, Myocyte, Smooth Muscle, Myocytes, Smooth Muscle, Smooth Muscle Cells, Smooth Muscle Myocyte, Smooth Muscle Myocytes
French CML (Cellule Musculaire Lisse), Myocyte du muscle lisse, Myocytes du muscle lisse, Cellules musculaires lisses, Léiomyocyte, Myocytes lisses
Swedish Glattmuskelceller
Czech myocyty - hladký sval
Portuguese Miócitos de Músculo Liso, Células Musculares Lisas, Células de Músculo Liso
Spanish Células de Músculo Liso, Células Musculares Lisas, Miocitos de Músculo Liso, Miocitos del Músculo Liso
Finnish Sileälihassolut
Russian MIOTSITY GLADKOMYSHECHNYE, GLADKOMYSHECHNYE MIOTSITY, ГЛАДКОМЫШЕЧНЫЕ МИОЦИТЫ, МИОЦИТЫ ГЛАДКОМЫШЕЧНЫЕ
Italian Cellule muscolari lisce, Miociti della muscolatura liscia
Polish Miocyty mięśni gładkich
Japanese 平滑筋細胞, 筋細胞-平滑筋
Croatian Not Translated[Myocytes, Smooth Muscle]
Norwegian Glatte myocytter, Glatte muskelceller, Myocytter, glatt muskulatur
German Glatte Muskelzellen, Myozyten, glatte Muskulatur
Dutch Gladde spiercellen, Myocyten, gladde spier

Ontology: Myosin myofilament (C1179120)

Definition (NCI) A myofilament composed of myosin.
Concepts Cell Component (T026)
English Thick filament, Myosin myofilament, Myofilamentum crassum, filament thick, thick filament, filaments thick, Thick Filament

Ontology: Actin myofilament (C1179121)

Definition (NCI) A myofilament composed of actin and tropomyosin.
Definition (GO) Filaments formed of actin and associated proteins; attached to Z discs at either end of sarcomeres in myofibrils. [ISBN:0815316194]
Concepts Cell Component (T026)
English striated muscle thin filament, Myofilamentum tenue, Actin myofilament, Thin filament, Striated muscle thin filament, Thin Filament

Ontology: Smooth muscle (tissue) (C1267092)

Definition (FMA) Tissue which consists of smooth muscle fibers surrounded by a reticulum of collagen and elastic fibers. Examples: Arrector muscle of hair, Muscularis mucosae.
Definition (MSHCZE) Svalovina, která není příčně pruhovaná, z níž jsou tvořeny vnitřní orgány, cévy, vlasové folikuly atd. Kontraktilní prvky svalu jsou protáhlé, obvykle vřetenovitě tvarované buňky s centrálně umístěným jádrem. Vlákna hladkého svalstva jsou obalena a pospojována vlákny bohaté retikulární sítě, v níž častá místa spojů zaručují elasticitu tkáně a její funkční dostatečnost.(In Stedman, 25. vyd.) R
Definition (NCI) Involuntary muscle tissue of the internal organs. It is composed of elongated muscle cells or fibers that are not arranged in a striated pattern and form layers of muscle tissue. The smooth muscle cells contain a contractile apparatus composed of thin and thick filaments and a cytoskeleton composed of intermediate filaments.
Definition (NCI_CDISC) Involuntary muscle tissue of the internal organs. It is composed of elongated muscle cells or fibers that are not arranged in a striated pattern and form layers of muscle tissue. The smooth muscle cells contain a contractile apparatus composed of thin and thick filaments and a cytoskeleton composed of intermediate filaments. (NCI)
Definition (MSH) Unstriated and unstriped muscle, one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles, etc. Contractile elements are elongated, usually spindle-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei. Smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers and frequently elastic nets are also abundant. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Definition (CSP) nonstriated involuntary muscle; one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles, etc; contractile elements are elongated, usually spindle-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei.
Concepts Tissue (T024)
MSH D009130
SnomedCT 122447002, 39822001
LNC LP16762-4
English Muscle, Smooth, Muscles, Smooth, Smooth Muscles, Involuntary Muscle, Involuntary Muscles, Muscle, Involuntary, Muscles, Involuntary, nonstriated muscle, Smooth muscle tissue, Textus muscularis nonstriatus, Non-striated muscle, Involuntary muscle, Smooth Muscle, muscles smooth, involuntary muscles, smooth muscle, smooth muscles, muscle smooth, involuntary muscle, smooth tissue muscle, muscle involuntary, smooth muscle tissue, MUSCLE, SMOOTH, SMOOTH MUSCLE TISSUE, Smooth muscle, Smooth muscle (organ) structure (body structure), Smooth muscle (organ) structure, Smooth muscle (organ), Smooth muscle (tissue) (body structure), Smooth muscle (tissue), Smooth muscle, NOS, Smooth Muscle Tissue
French Muscles lisses, Muscle lisse, Muscle involontaire
Swedish Glatt muskulatur
Czech svaly hladké
Finnish Sileä lihaskudos
Russian MYSHTSA GLADKAIA, МЫШЦА ГЛАДКАЯ
Italian Muscolo involontario, Muscolo liscio
Croatian MIŠIĆ, GLATKI
Latvian Not Translated[Muscle, Smooth]
Polish Mięśnie gładkie
Japanese 平滑筋, 不随意筋
Norwegian Glatt muskulatur
Spanish estructura del músculo liso (órgano) (estructura corporal), estructura del músculo liso (órgano), músculo liso (tejido) (estructura corporal), músculo liso (tejido), músculo liso (órgano), Musculo Involuntario, Músculo Liso
German Glatte Muskulatur, Muskulatur, glatte, Muskulatur, unwillkürliche
Dutch Gladspierweefsel, Spier, gladde, Spier, onwillekeurige
Portuguese Músculo Involuntário, Músculo Liso

Ontology: Muscle, Striated (C1331262)

Definition (FMA) Tissue which consists of striated muscle fibers surrounded by endomysium. Examples: Skeletal muscle tissue, Cardiac muscle tissue.
Definition (MSHCZE) Jeden ze dvou typů tělesné svaloviny rozeznatelné pod mikroskopem podle svého uspořádání. Příčně pruhovaná svalovina se dělí na dva podtypy: srdeční (MYOKARD) a kosterní svalovinu (SVALY KOSTERNÍ). R
Definition (NCI_CDISC) Striated muscles are appendicular and axial muscles typically connected at either or both ends to the bony skeleton of the body. Striated muscle fibers contain a highly organized, contractile cytoskeletal apparatus with a striated microscopic appearance; muscle contraction is typically under voluntary control. (NCI)
Definition (NCI) Striated muscles are appendicular and axial muscles typically connected at either or both ends to the bony skeleton of the body. Striated muscle fibers contain a highly organized, contractile cytoskeletal apparatus with a striated microscopic appearance; muscle contraction is typically under voluntary control.
Definition (CSP) muscle with fibers divided by transverse bands into striations; in general under voluntary control.
Definition (MSH) One of two types of muscle in the body, characterized by the array of bands observed under microscope. Striated muscles can be divided into two subtypes: the CARDIAC MUSCLE and the SKELETAL MUSCLE.
Concepts Tissue (T024)
MSH D054792 , D018482
SnomedCT 127954009, 118252003, 79984008, 71616004
LNC LP16768-1
English striated muscle, Muscles, Striated, Striated Muscles, MUSCLE STRIATED, Striated Muscle, Striated muscle tissue, Muscle, Striated, STRIATED MUSCLE TISSUE, Striated muscle, Striated muscle (tissue) (body structure), Striated muscle (tissue), Striated muscle system, Striated muscle, NOS, Striated muscles, NOS, Striated Muscle Tissue
Portuguese Músculo Estriado
Spanish Músculo Estriado, músculo estriado (tejido) (estructura corporal), músculo estriado (tejido), músculo estriado
Finnish Poikkijuovainen lihas
French Muscle strié
German Muskel, quergestreifter
Italian Muscolo striato
Russian МЫШЦА ИСЧЕРЧЕННАЯ, МЫШЦА ПОПЕРЕЧНО-ПОЛОСАТАЯ, MYSHTSA POPERECHNO-POLOSATAIA, MYSHTSA ISCHERCHENNAIA
Swedish Tvärstrimmig muskulatur
Czech svaly příčně pruhované, příčně pruhovaná svalovina, žíhaná svalovina
Croatian Not Translated[Muscle, Striated]
Latvian Not Translated[Muscle, Striated]
Polish Mięśnie poprzecznie prążkowane
Japanese 横紋筋
Norwegian Tverrstripet muskulatur, Muskulatur, tverrstripet
Dutch Spier, dwarsgestreepte

Ontology: Striated muscle cell (C1514994)

Definition (FMA) Muscle cell which has as its direct parts myofilaments organized into sarcomeres.
Definition (NCI) A cylindrical multinucleated cell containing contracting myofibrils, across which run transverse light and dark areas, enclosed in a delicate plasma membrane.
Concepts Cell (T025)
English Striated Muscle Tissue Cell, Striated Muscle Cell, Striated muscle cell, Striated Muscle Tissue Fiber

Ontology: Skeletal Myocytes (C1704336)

Definition (MSH) Large, multinucleate single cells, either cylindrical or prismatic in shape, that form the basic unit of SKELETAL MUSCLE. They consist of MYOFIBRILS enclosed within and attached to the SARCOLEMMA. They are derived from the fusion of skeletal myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, SKELETAL) into a syncytium, followed by differentiation.
Definition (FMA) Striated muscle cell which has as its direct parts two or more peripherally located nuclei.
Definition (NCI) Large single cells, either cylindrical or prismatic in shape, that form the basic unit of muscle tissue. They consist of a soft contractile substance enclosed in a tubular sheath. (MeSH)
Concepts Cell (T025)
MSH D018485
SnomedCT 80985008
English Skeletal Muscle Cell, Skeletal Muscle Tissue Cell, Skeletal Myocytes, Skeletal muscle cell, Myocytus striatus, Muscle Fibers, Skeletal, Fiber, Skeletal Muscle, Fibers, Skeletal Muscle, Muscle Fiber, Skeletal, Skeletal Muscle Fibers, skeletal muscle fibre, skeletal muscle cell, Myocyte, Skeletal, Myocytes, Skeletal, Myotube, Myotubes, Skeletal Myocyte, Skeletal muscle fiber, Skeletal muscle fiber (cell structure), Skeletal muscle fibre, Skeletal muscle fiber, NOS, Skeletal muscle fiber (cell), Rhabdomyocyte, Skeletal Fiber, Skeletal Muscle Fiber
Swedish Muskelfibrer
Finnish Lihassyyt
Japanese 筋線維, 骨格筋線維
Spanish Fibras Musculares Esqueléticas, Fibras del Músculo, fibra del músculo esquelético (célula), fibra del músculo esquelético (estructura celular), fibra del músculo esquelético, fibra musculoesquelética, Miotubos, Miocitos Esqueléticos
French Fibres musculaires squelettiques, Fibres musculaires striées squelettiques, Cellules musculaires striées squelettiques, Fibres du muscle strié squelettique, Fibres musculaires striées, Myotubes, Myocytes squelettiques, Rhabdomyocytes
Italian Fibre muscolari scheletriche
Russian МЫШЕЧНЫЕ ВОЛОКНА СКЕЛЕТНЫЕ, MYSHECHNYE VOLOKNA SKELETNYE
Portuguese Fibras Musculares Esqueléticas, Miotúbulos, Miócitos Esqueléticos, Miotubos
Croatian MIŠIĆNO TKIVO
Czech svalová vlákna kosterní
Latvian Not Translated[Muscle Fibers, Skeletal]
Polish Miocyty mięśni szkieletowych, Miocyty szkieletowe, Miotuby
Norwegian Skjelettmuskelfibre, Skjelettmuskulatur
German Muskelfasern, Myotuben, Myozyten, Skelett-, Skelett-Myozyten

Ontology: Primary nerve ending within muscle spindle (C2328642)

Concepts Cell Component (T026)
English Annulospiral nerve ending, Primary nerve ending within muscle spindle

Ontology: Secondary nerve ending within muscle spindle (C2333830)

Concepts Cell Component (T026)
English Secondary nerve ending within muscle spindle, Flower-spray nerve ending

Ontology: Nerve ending within Golgi tendon organ (C2336127)

Concepts Cell Component (T026)
English Nerve ending within Golgi tendon organ

Ontology: Myofilaments (C3179197)

Definition (NCI) Fibrillar protein polymers found in the contractile apparatus of muscle cells.
Concepts Cell Component (T026)
MSH D009210
English Myofilament, Myofilamentum, Myofilaments
Portuguese Miofilamentos
Spanish Miofilamentos
German Myofilamente
French Myofilaments
Norwegian Myofilament
Italian Miofilamenti