II. Findings

III. Associated Conditions: Wallenberg's Syndrome (Vertebral ArteryOcclusion)

  1. Lesion in the lateral Medulla
    1. Occlusion of the Posterior Inferior Cerebellar Artery
    2. Often results from Vertebral Artery thrombosis
  2. Findings
    1. Presents with Ataxia, Vertigo, Nystagmus and Vomiting
    2. Dysphagia and Dysarthria are also present
    3. Decreased pain and TemperatureSensation
      1. Ipsilateral face
      2. Contralateral body
    4. Ipsilateral Horner Syndrome
      1. Ptosis
      2. Miosis
      3. Anhidrosis

IV. Associated Conditions: Locked-In Syndrome

  1. Causes
    1. Basilar ArteryOcclusion at pons
    2. Pontine Hemorrhage
    3. Central Pontine Myelinolysis
  2. Findings
    1. Complete motor paralysis with two exceptions
      1. Diaphragmatic breathing unaffected
      2. Vertical eye movements unaffected
    2. Neurologic function otherwise intact
      1. Awake, alert and lucid
      2. Cognitive function remains intact
      3. Intact Sensation

V. Associated Conditions: Weber Syndrome

  1. Lesion in the medial Midbrain or cerebral peduncle
    1. Occlusion of deep penetrating artery from Posterior Cerebral Artery
  2. Findings
    1. Ipsilateral Cranial Nerve 3 palsy
    2. Contralateral Hemiparesis including the lower face

VI. Associated Conditions: Benedikt Syndrome

  1. Lesion in the ventral Midbrain with red nucleus involvement
    1. Occlusion of deep penetrating artery from Posterior Cerebral Artery OR
    2. Occlusion Paramedian penetrating Basilar Artery branches
  2. Findings
    1. Ipsilateral Cranial Nerve 3 palsy
    2. Contralateral involuntary movements (e.g. hemichorea, hemiathetosis, Intention Tremor)

VII. Associated Conditions: Nothnagel Syndrome

  1. Lesion in the superior cerebellar peduncle
    1. Occlusion of deep penetrating artery from Posterior Cerebral Artery
  2. Findings
    1. Ipsilateral Cranial Nerve 3 palsy
    2. Contralateral dysmetria
    3. Contralateral limb Ataxia

VIII. Associated Conditions: Foville Syndrome

  1. Lesion in the facial colliculus (caudal pontine tegmentum)
    1. Occlusion of the Basilar Artery perforating branches to the pons
  2. Findings
    1. Ipsilateral Cranial Nerve 6 Palsy (lateral Gaze Palsy)
    2. Ipsilateral Cranial Nerve 7 palsy (upper and lower facial weakness)
    3. Contralateral Hemiparesis may be present

IX. Associated Conditions: One and A Half Syndrome

  1. Lesion in the paramedian pons (pontine reticular formation, Medial Longitudinal Fasciculus)
    1. Occlusion of the Basilar Artery perforating branches to the pons
  2. Findings
    1. Ipsilateral Cranial Nerve 6 Palsy (lateral Gaze Palsy)
    2. Bilateral Internuclear Ophthalmoplegia

X. Associated Conditions: Dejerine Syndrome

  1. Lesion in the medial Medulla
    1. Occlusion of the Vertebral Artery or the Anterior Spinal Artery
  2. Findings
    1. Ipsilateral Tongue weakness
    2. Contralateral Hemiparesis
    3. Contralateral proprioception and vibratory sense loss may be present

XI. Associated Conditions: Parinaud Syndrome (Dorsal Midbrain Syndrome)

  1. Lesion in the dorsal Midbrain (may also be caused by a neoplasm such as a pinealoma, or demyelinating disease)
  2. Findings
    1. Fixed pupils unresponsive to light
    2. Eyelid retraction (Collier's sign)
    3. Convergence-retraction Nystagmus (Nystagmus when looking up)
    4. Limited upward gaze

XII. Associated Conditions: Claude Syndrome

  1. Lesion in the Midbrain tegmentum (red nucleus, brachium conjunctivum)
  2. Findings
    1. Ipsilateral Cranial Nerve 3 Palsy
    2. Contralateral Hemiparesis
    3. Contralateral Ataxia
    4. Contralateral Hemiplegia of the lower face, Tongue, and Shoulder
    5. Tremor

XIII. Associated Conditions: Top of the Basilar Syndrome (Rostral Brainstem Infarction)

  1. Lesion in the Midbrain, Thalamus, inferior Temporal Lobes and Occipital Lobes
    1. Top or distal Basilar ArteryOcclusion
  2. Findings
    1. Cranial Nerve 3 Palsy (oculomotor palsy)
    2. Cranial Nerve 4 Palsy (trochlear palsy)
    3. Pupils with slow or no response to light
    4. Convergence-retraction Nystagmus
    5. Limited upward gaze

XIV. Associated Conditions: Millard-Gubler syndrome

  1. Lesion in the caudal pons (ventral base of the pons)
  2. Findings
    1. Ipsilateral Cranial Nerve 7 palsy (facial palsy)
    2. Ipsilateral Cranial Nerve 6 Palsy (abducens palsy) may be present
    3. Contralateral Hemiparesis (pyramidal tract involvement)

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Related Studies

Ontology: Locked-In Syndrome (C0023944)

Concepts Disease or Syndrome (T047)
MSH D011782
ICD9 344.81
ICD10 G83.5
SnomedCT 38023001
English Locked In Syndrome, Locked-In Syndrome, Syndrome, Locked-In, LOCKED-IN SYNDROME, Locked-in state, locked-in syndrome, locked-in syndrome (diagnosis), Locked-in syndrome, Locked-In Syndromes, Syndromes, Locked-In, locked in syndrome, locked syndrome, lock in syndrome, locking syndrome, pseudocoma, Locked in syndrome, Locked in syndrome (disorder)
Italian Sindrome da de-efferentazione motoria, Stato di de-efferentazione motoria, Sindrome locked-in, Sindrome del chiavistello
Dutch locked-in toestand, locked-in syndroom, Locked-in sundroom
German festsitzender Zustand, Locked-in-Syndrom, Locked-in Syndrom
Portuguese Estado locked-in, Síndrome do Cativeiro, SINDROME LOCKED-IN, Síndrome locked-in
Spanish Locked-in syndrome, Síndrome Encerrado, síndrome de encierro (trastorno), síndrome de desconexión pontina, locked-in, síndrome de desconexión pontina (trastorno), síndrome de encierro, seudocoma, Síndrome del cautiverio
Japanese 閉じ込め症候群, トジコメショウコウグン
French LIS (Locked-In Syndrome), SYNDROME LOCKED-IN, Syndrome de désefférentation, Locked-in syndrome, Syndrome d'enfermement, Syndrome de verrouillage
Czech Syndrom locked-in, Locked-in stav, locked-in syndrom, syndrom uzamčení
Hungarian Bezártság-szindróma (locked-in)
Norwegian Locked in-syndrom

Ontology: Lateral Medullary Syndrome (C0043019)

Definition (NCI) A syndrome caused by an infarct in the vertebral or posterior inferior cerebellar artery. It is characterized by sensory defects affecting the same side of the face as the infarct and the opposite side of the trunk as the infarct. Patients experience difficulty swallowing and/or speaking.
Definition (MSH) INFARCTION of the dorsolateral aspect of MEDULLA OBLONGATA in the BRAIN STEM. It is caused by occlusion of the VERTEBRAL ARTERY and/or the posterior inferior cerebellar artery. Clinical manifestations vary with the size of infarction, but may include loss of pain and temperature sensation in the ipsilateral face and contralateral body below the chin; ipsilateral HORNER SYNDROME; ipsilateral ATAXIA; DYSARTHRIA; VERTIGO; nausea, hiccup; dysphagia; and VOCAL CORD PARALYSIS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p801)
Concepts Disease or Syndrome (T047)
MSH D014854
ICD10 G46.3
SnomedCT 195193009, 78569004
English Lateral Bulbar Syndrome, Posterior Inferior Cerebellar Artery Syndrome, Wallenberg Syndrome, Wallenberg's Syndrome, Wallenbergs Syndrome, Wallenberg syndrome, LMS - Lateral medullary syndr, stroke of posterior inferior cerebellar artery (diagnosis), stroke of posterior inferior cerebellar artery, Dorsolateral Medullary Syndrome, Medullary Syndrome, Dorsolateral, Lateral Medullary Syndrome, Syndrome, Vieseaux-Wallenberg, Vieseaux Wallenberg Syndrome, Vieseaux-Wallenberg Syndrome, Syndrome, Wallenberg, Lateral Medullary Syndrome [Disease/Finding], syndrome wallenberg, lateral medullary syndrome, wallenberg's syndrome, wallenberg syndrome, wallenbergs syndrome, Lateral Medullary Syndromes, Syndromes, Lateral Medullary, Inferior cerebellar artery syndrome, Lateral medullary syndrome, Posterior inferior cerebellar artery syndrome, Wallenberg's syndrome, LMS - Lateral medullary syndrome, Posterior inferior cerebellar artery syndrome (disorder)
Japanese 外側髄症候群, ガイソクズイショウコウグン, ワレンベルグショウコウグン, Wallenberg症候群, 延髄外側症候群, ワレンベルグ症候群, 外側延髄症候群, 後下小脳動脈症候群, ヴァレンベルグ症候群
Swedish Lateralt medullärt syndrom
Czech Wallenbergův syndrom, syndrom PICA, laterální míšní syndrom, Syndrom dorzolaterální oblongáty-Wallenbergův
Finnish Wallenbergin oireyhtymä
French Syndrome latéral du bulbe, Syndrome médullaire latéral, Syndrome latéro-bulbaire, Syndrome de Wallenberg, lnfarctus latérobulbaire
Italian Sindrome bulbare laterale, Sindrome midollare laterale, Sindrome di Vieseaux-Wallenberg, Sindrome dell'arteria cerebellare inferiore posteriore, Sindrome dorsolaterale midollare, Sindrome di Wallenberg
Polish Zespół Wallenberga, Zespół tętnicy móżdżkowej tylnej dolnej, Zespół rdzeniowy boczny
Hungarian Wallenberg-syndroma, Lateralis nyúltvelői syndroma (Wallenberg)
Norwegian PICA-syndromet, Wallenbergs syndrom, Arteria cerebellaris posterior-inferior-syndrom, Lateralt medullært syndrom
Spanish síndrome de Wallenberg (trastorno), síndrome de Wallenberg, síndrome de arteria cerebelosa posterior inferior, síndrome de la arteria cerebelosa inferior, síndrome de la arteria cerebelosa posteroinferior, síndrome medular lateral, Síndrome de Wallemberg, Síndrome medular lateral, Síndrome Bulbar Lateral, Síndrome de la Arteria Cerebelar Posteroinferior, Síndrome de Wallenberg, Síndrome Medular Lateral
Portuguese Síndrome medular lateral, Síndrome Bulbar Lateral, Síndrome da Artéria Cerebelar Posteroinferior, Síndrome de Wallenberg, Síndrome Medular Lateral
Dutch lateraal medullair syndroom, syndroom van Wallenberg, Arteria-cerebelli-posterior-inferiorsyndroom, Lateraal bulbair syndroom, Laterale medulla-oblongatasyndroom, Syndroom van Wallenberg, Syndroom, laterale medulla-oblongata-
German Wallenberg Sandrom, Wallenberg Syndrom, Wallenberg-Syndrom, Oblongata-Syndrom, laterales, Wallenberg-Foix-Syndrom, Syndrom der Arteria cerebelli inferior posterior, Laterales medulläres Syndrom

Ontology: Parinaud Syndrome (C0152222)

Definition (NCI) A rare syndrome affecting conjugate vertical eye movement. It is often caused by a dorsal midbrain neoplasm, commonly a pinealoma, but may also be attributable to demyelinating diseases or stroke. Clinical signs include limitation of upward gaze, light-near dissociation of the pupillary response, eyelid retraction (Collier's sign) and convergence-retraction nystagmus. Clinical course is dependent on effective treatment of underlying cause.
Concepts Disease or Syndrome (T047)
MSH D015835
SnomedCT 37991008, 271958002
English Syndrome, Parinaud's, Parinaud's syndrome (diagnosis), Parinaud's Syndrome, Parinauds Syndrome, Syndrome, Parinaud, parinauds syndrome, parinaud's syndrome, parinaud syndrome, Dorsal Midbrain Syndrome, Parinaud's ophthalmoplegia, Parinaud's syndrome, Dorsal midbrain syndrome, Paralysis of vertical movement, Parinaud syndrome, Vertical gaze palsy - Parinaud, Dorsal midbrain syndrome (disorder), Parinaud's syndrome (disorder), ophthalmoplegia; parinaud's, parinaud's; ophthalmoplegia, parinaud's; syndrome, syndrome; parinaud's, Parinaud Syndrome
Portuguese Síndrome de Parinaud
Spanish Síndrome de Parinaud, oftalmoplejía de Parinaud, síndrome de Parinaud (trastorno), síndrome de Parinaud, síndrome del mesencéfalo dorsal (trastorno), síndrome del mesencéfalo dorsal
French Syndrome de Parinaud
German Parinaud-Symptomatik, Parinaud-Syndrom, Blickparese, vertikale, Vertikale Blickparese, Vierhügelstarre
Czech Parinaudův syndrom
Dutch parinaudsyndroom, Parinaud; oftalmoplegie, Parinaud; syndroom, oftalmoplegie; Parinaud, syndroom; Parinaud, Parinaud-syndroom
Hungarian Parinaud syndroma
Japanese パリノー症候群, パリノーショウコウグン
Norwegian Parinauds syndrom
Italian Sindrome di Parinaud

Ontology: Nothnagel's syndrome (C0270756)

Concepts Disease or Syndrome (T047)
SnomedCT 32680009
English Nothnagel's syndrome (diagnosis), Nothnagel syndrome, Nothnagel's syndrome, Oculomotor paralysis-cerebellar ataxia syndrome, Nothnagel's syndrome (disorder), Nothnagel; syndrome, ophthalmoplegia-cerebellar ataxia; syndrome, syndrome; Nothnagel, syndrome; ophthalmoplegia-cerebellar ataxia
Dutch Nothnagel; syndroom, oftalmoplegie-cerebellaire ataxie; syndroom, syndroom; Nothnagel, syndroom; oftalmoplegie-cerebellaire ataxie
Spanish síndrome de Nothnagel (trastorno), síndrome de Nothnagel, síndrome de ataxia cerebelosa - parálisis oculomotora

Ontology: Claude Syndrome (C0271373)

Concepts Disease or Syndrome (T047)
MSH D020526
ICD10 G46.3
SnomedCT 87555007
Czech Claudeův syndrom
Portuguese Síndrome de Claude
Spanish Síndrome de Claude, síndrome de Claude (trastorno), síndrome de Claude, síndrome del pedúnculo rubroespinal cerebeloso
French Syndrome de Claude, Syndrome inférieur du noyau rouge
German Claude-Syndrom, Claude-Loyez-Syndrom, Ruber-Syndrom, unteres
English Claude's syndrome (diagnosis), Claude's syndrome, Rubrospinal cerebellar peduncle syndrome, Claude syndrome, Claude's syndrome (disorder), Claude (etiology), Claude (manifestation), Claude Syndrome
Norwegian Claudes syndrom
Italian Sindrome di Claude
Dutch Claude-syndroom

Ontology: Millard-Gubler syndrome (C0271391)

Concepts Disease or Syndrome (T047)
ICD10 G46.3
SnomedCT 13410009, 276221006
Spanish Síndrome de Millard-Gubler, síndrome I de Foville (trastorno), síndrome I de Foville, síndrome de Millard - Gubler, síndrome de Millard-Gubler (trastorno), síndrome de Millard-Gubler, síndrome peduncular de Foville
French Syndrome de Millard-Gubler
Dutch Millard-Gubler-syndroom, Gubler-Millard; paralyse, Millard-Gubler-Foville; paralyse, paralyse; Gubler-Millard, paralyse; Millard-Gubler-Foville
Portuguese Síndrome de Millard-Gubler
German Millard-Gubler-Syndrom
Italian Sindrome di Millard-Gubler
Japanese ミラール・ギュブレ症候群, ミラールギュブレショウコウグン
English Millard-Gubler syndrome (diagnosis), Foville syndrome I, millard gubler syndrome, millard-gubler syndrome, Foville's peduncular syndrome, Foville's syndrome I, Millard-Gubler syndrome, Foville's syndrome I (disorder), Millard-Gubler syndrome (disorder), Gubler syndrome, Gubler-Millard (manifestation), Gubler-Millard; paralysis (etiology), Gubler-Millard; paralysis (manifestation), Millard-Gubler (manifestation), Millard-Gubler-Foville; paralysis (manifestation), paralysis; Gubler-Millard (etiology), paralysis; Gubler-Millard (manifestation), paralysis; Millard-Gubler-Foville (manifestation)
Czech Millard-Gublerův syndrom
Hungarian Millard-Gubler syndroma

Ontology: Benedict Syndrome (C0455715)

Concepts Disease or Syndrome (T047)
MSH D020526
ICD10 G46.3
SnomedCT 41713005
Czech Benediktův syndrom
Portuguese Síndrome de Benedict
Spanish Síndrome de Benedict, síndrome de Benedict, parálisis tegmentaria mesencefálica, síndrome de Benedikt (trastorno), síndrome de Benedikt, síndrome tegmentario
French Syndrome de Benedikt
German Benedikt-Syndrom
English Benedikt syndrome, benedict syndrome, benedicts syndrome, benedikt's syndrome, Benedikt syndrome (diagnosis), Tegmentum syndrome, Benedikt's syndrome, Mesencephalic tegmental paralysis, Benedict syndrome, Benedikt's syndrome (disorder), mesencephalic; paralysis, tegmental, paralysis; mesencephalic, tegmental, syndrome; tegmental, tegmental; syndrome, Benedict Syndrome
Norwegian Benedicts syndrom
Italian Sindrome di Benedikt
Dutch mesencefaal; paralyse, tegmentaal, paralyse; mesencefaal, tegmentaal, syndroom; tegmentaal, tegmentaal; syndroom, Benedict-syndroom

Ontology: Foville Syndrome (C0455716)

Concepts Disease or Syndrome (T047)
MSH D020526
ICD10 G46.3
SnomedCT 276220007
Czech Fovilleův syndrom
Portuguese Síndrome de Foville
Spanish Síndrome de Foville, síndrome de Foville (trastorno), síndrome de Foville
French Syndrome de Foville
German Foville-Syndrom
Norwegian Fovilles syndrom
Italian Sindrome di Foville
English Foville syndrome, Foville syndrome (disorder), Foville (manifestation), Foville Syndrome
Dutch Foville-syndroom

Ontology: Weber Syndrome (C0455717)

Concepts Disease or Syndrome (T047)
MSH D020526
ICD10 G46.3
SnomedCT 24654003
Czech Weberův syndrom
Portuguese Síndrome de Weber
Spanish Síndrome de Weber, síndrome de Weber - Gubler (trastorno), síndrome de Weber - Gubler
French Syndrome de Weber
German Weber-Syndrom
English Weber's syndrome (diagnosis), Weber's syndrome, Weber Syndrome, weber syndrome, weber's syndrome, webers syndrome, syndrome webers, Weber-Gubler syndrome, Weber syndrome, Weber-Gubler syndrome (disorder)
Norwegian Webers syndrom
Italian Sindrome di Weber
Dutch Weber-syndroom

Ontology: Top of the Basilar Syndrome (C0455718)

Concepts Disease or Syndrome (T047)
MSH D020526
SnomedCT 276222004
English TOP BASILAR SYNDROME, Top of basilar syndrome, Top of basilar syndrome (disorder), Top of the Basilar Syndrome
Czech syndrom bazilárního vrcholu
Spanish Síndrome Basilar Alto, síndrome del tope de la basilar (trastorno), síndrome del tope de la basilar
German Top-of-the-Basilar-Syndrom
Norwegian Top of the basilar-syndrom
Italian Infarto del top della basilare
Portuguese Síndrome da Artéria Vertebrobasilar
Dutch Basilarissyndroom

Ontology: Brain Stem Infarctions (C0521542)

Definition (MSH) Infarctions that occur in the BRAIN STEM which is comprised of the MIDBRAIN; PONS; and MEDULLA OBLONGATA. There are several named syndromes characterized by their distinctive clinical manifestations and specific sites of ischemic injury.
Concepts Disease or Syndrome (T047)
MSH D020526
SnomedCT 195192004, 95457000, 230697005, 195191006
English Brainstem infarction, Brainstem infarction NOS, BRAIN STEM INFARCTION, BRAIN STEM INFARCT, BRAINSTEM INFARCT, INFARCT BRAIN STEM, INFARCT BRAINSTEM, brainstem strokes (diagnosis), brainstem strokes, Brain Stem Infarction, Brain Stem Infarctions, Infarction, Brain Stem, Infarctions, Brain Stem, Brainstem Infarction, Brainstem Infarctions, Infarction, Brainstem, Infarctions, Brainstem, Brainstem Stroke, Stroke, Brainstem, Brain Stem Infarctions [Disease/Finding], brainstem infarct, brain stem infarct, brainstem infarction, brainstem stroke, brain stem infarction, stroke brainstem, Brainstem infarction (disorder), Infarction of brain stem, Brain stem stroke, Brainstem infarction NOS (disorder), Brain stem infarct, Brain stem infarction, Brain stem infarction (disorder)
Italian Infarto del tronco encefalico, Ictus del tronco encefalico, Infarti del tronco cerebrale
Swedish Hjärnstamsinfarkter
Japanese ノウカンコウソク, Claude症候群, Benedikt症候群, 舌下神経交代性片麻痺, 動眼神経交代性片麻痺, フォヴィーユ症候群, ベーネディクト症候群, ミラード-グブラー症候群, 橋底下部外側症候群, 上交代性麻痺, ミラール・グブラー症候群, 下交代性麻痺, 赤核脊髄小脳脚症候群, フォービーユ麻痺, ミラール-グブラー症候群, ウェーバー麻痺, クロード症候群, 上部交代性片麻痺, ミヤール・ギュブレル症候群, ミラード・グブラー症候群, Foville症候群, ウェーバー症候群, 下部赤核症候群, 側方注視麻痺, Millard-Gublar症候群, Weber徴候, 上交代性片麻痺, ミヤール-ギュブレル症候群, ウェーバー徴候, 顔面神経交代性片麻痺, 上部交代性麻痺, フォビーユ症候群, ミラール-ギュブレ症候群, ミラール・ギュブレ症候群, Weber症候群, グブレル麻痺, 赤核下部症候群, ベネディクト症候群, ノウカンソッチュウ, 脳幹卒中, 脳幹梗塞, Benedict症候群
Finnish Aivorunkoinfarktit
Portuguese ENFARTO DO TRONCO CEREBRAL, AVC do tronco cerebral, Síndrome do Topo da Artéria Basilar, Enfarte do tronco cerebral, Infartos do Tronco Encefálico
French INFARCTUS DU TRONC CEREBRAL, AVC du tronc cérébral, Infarctus du tronc cérébral
Czech Infarkt mozkového kmene, Mozková příhoda mozkového kmene, infarkty mozkového kmene, mozkový kmen - infarkty
Spanish Ictus troncoencefálico, infarto del tronco encefálico, SAI (trastorno), infarto del tronco encefálico, SAI, infarto de tronco encefálico (trastorno), infarto de tronco encefálico, Infarto del tronco del encéfalo, Infartos del Tronco Encefálico
Dutch hersenstam beroerte, hersenstaminfarct, Hersenstaminfarct, Hersenstaminfarcten, Infarct, hersenstam-, Infarcten, hersenstam-
German Hirnstamminsult, Hirnstamminfarkt, Hirnstamminfarkte
Polish Zawał pnia mózgu
Hungarian Agytörzsi infarctus, Agytörzs stroke
Norwegian Hjernestammeinfarkt, Hjernestammeinfarkter

Ontology: Pontine infarction (C0877587)

Concepts Pathologic Function (T046)
Dutch ponsinfarct
French Infarctus pontin
German pontiner Infarkt
Italian Infarto pontino
Portuguese Enfarte pôntico
Spanish Infarto pontino
Japanese 橋梗塞, キョウコウソク
Czech Infarkt pontu
English pontine infarction, Pontine infarction
Hungarian Pontin infarctus