II. Definitions

  1. Procedural Sedation and Analgesia (PSAA)
    1. Replaces the term Conscious Sedation
    2. Administer Sedatives (e.g. Propofol) or dissociative agents (e.g. Ketamine), with or without Analgesics (e.g. Fentanyl)
    3. Induce and Altered Level of Consciousness while still preserving cardiopulmonary function
  2. Minimal Sedation
    1. Anxiolysis
    2. Normal response to verbal stimuli
      1. Near baseline level of alertness
      2. Coordination or cognition may be impaired
    3. No Ventilatory depression
    4. No cardiovascular depression
  3. Moderate Sedation
    1. Depressed Level of Consciousness
    2. Purposeful response to verbal commands or light stimulation
      1. Drooping Eyelids and slurred speech
      2. Delayed verbal response
      3. Often associated with Amnesia around the period of the procedure
    3. No airway compromise
    4. No Ventilatory depression
    5. No cardiovascular depression
  4. Dissociative Sedation (i.e. Ketamine)
    1. Trance state (cataleptic) induced by Ketamine
    2. Potent Analgesic and amnestic properties
    3. Maintains airway reflexes and spontaneous respirations
    4. Cardiovascular function maintained
  5. Deep Sedation
    1. Depressed Level of Consciousness
    2. Response only to repeated or painful stimuli
    3. Ensure airway protection
    4. Ventilatory depression may occur
    5. No cardiovascular depression
  6. General Anesthesia
    1. Depressed Level of Consciousness
    2. Not arrousable to painful stimuli
    3. Airway and Ventilatory support required
    4. Cardiovascular depression may occur

III. Indications

  1. Adult precedural sedation
    1. Fracture or dislocation reduction
    2. Significant Wound Debridement
    3. Rectal Foreign Body
    4. Endoscopy
    5. Bronchoscopy
    6. Electrical cardioversion
  2. Child Procedural Sedation
    1. Fracture or dislocation reduction
    2. Laceration Repair or Wound Debridement
    3. Abscess Incision and Drainage
    4. Imaging studies
    5. Ear Foreign Body
    6. Entrapment of penis in zipper

IV. Contraindications

  1. Significant or unstable cormorbid illness

V. History

  1. Last oral intake
  2. Medications
  3. Medication Allergies
  4. Prior reaction to Anesthesia or analgesia
  5. Serious medical conditions (affecting major organ systems)
    1. See ASA Physical Status Classification System
    2. Cerebrovascular Disease
    3. Coronary Artery Disease, Congestive Heart Failure or Arrhythmia
    4. Obstructive Sleep Apnea, COPD
    5. Chronic Kidney Disease
    6. Diabetes Mellitus
    7. Asthma or active Upper Respiratory Infection
      1. Increased risk of laryngospasm

VI. Exam

  1. Baseline Vital Signs
  2. Body weight and height (for dosing)
  3. Assess for difficult airway
    1. Lemon Mnemonic
    2. Mallampati Score

VII. Preparation: Fasting

  1. Fasting is preferred but not required prior to procedure
  2. Food intake is not absolute contraindication
    1. Aspiration is less likely with Fasting
    2. Urgent procedures may be performed without Fasting
  3. Formal guidelines for elective procedures (per Anesthesia)
    1. No clear liquids in last 2 hours
    2. No Breast Milk in 4 hours (or infant formula in 6 hours)
    3. No food, milk, solids in last 6 hours
  4. Consider risk factors for pulmonary aspiration
    1. Advanced age
    2. Comorbid medical conditions
    3. Pregnancy
    4. Gastroesophageal Reflux risks (e.g. Hiatal Hernia, Bowel Obstruction, ileus, Peptic Ulcer Disease)
    5. Ketamine is associated with peri-procedural Vomiting in up to 28% of children
  5. No evidence to support Vomiting prophylaxis
    1. No evidence for pre-procedural Antacids, H2 Blockers or Anticholinergics
      1. However, H2 Blockers or Metoclopramide is often given prophylactically in pregnancy
    2. Pre-procedural Ondansetron may be considered if higher aspiration risk
      1. However, no consistent evidence of benefit
      2. Lee (2014) J Paediatr Child Health 50(7): 557-61 [PubMed]
      3. Lee (2008) Ann Emerg Med 52(10: 30-4 [PubMed]
  6. Emergency department guidelines for NPO prior to Procedural Sedation
    1. Evidence does not support the same NPO guidelines in Emergency Department as for elective procedures
    2. ACEP guidelines note that recent food intake is not a contraindication to Procedural Sedation
      1. Godwin (2014) Ann Emerg Med 63(2): 247-58 +PMID:24438649 [PubMed]
    3. NPO duration prior to Procedural Sedation does not appear to impact risk of Vomiting or aspiration
      1. Molina (2010) Int J Evid Based Healthc 8(2): 75-8 [PubMed]
      2. Bell (2007) Emerg Med Australas 19(5): 405-10 [PubMed]

VIII. Preparation: Emergency Preparedness

  1. Requires provider experienced in sedation
    1. Knowledgeable about Sedatives and monitoring
    2. Skilled in ABC Management
    3. Assign one person to monitor and manage Anesthesia and respiratory status (e.g. clinician, RN, RT, Anesthesia)
      1. Other clinician focuses on the procedure
      2. Capnography (End-Tidal CO2) may be adequate for monitoring (without additional required staff)
      3. However, many organizations require one trained practitioner dedicated to monitoring Anesthesia
  2. Monitoring during procedure
    1. Blood Pressure monitoring
      1. Automatic cuff cycled at least every 5 minutes
    2. Continuous waveform End-Tidal CO2 Monitoring (Capnography)
      1. Commonly used for emergency department Procedural Sedation
        1. Not required per ACEP guidelines as of 2014
      2. Significantly increases early detection of repiratory depression and apnea
        1. Decreased Hypoxia risk by 10-20%
        2. Alerts to apnea 4-8 minutes before Oxygen Saturation changes
        3. Supplemental Oxygen delays oxygen desaturation during apnea
        4. Deitch (2010) Ann Emerg Med 55(3): 258-64 [PubMed]
      3. May not alter outcomes compared with standard monitoring
        1. van Loon (2014) Anesth Analg 119(1): 49-55 [PubMed]
      4. Available as part of a Nasal Cannula type device
      5. Technique for attaching to Face Mask
        1. Insert a 14 gauge angiocatheter through holes in Face Mask outflow
        2. Attach 14 gauge catheter to Capnography
    3. Cardiac monitoring
    4. Pulse Oximetry
      1. Not useful for timely diagnosis of apnea if Supplemental Oxygen used
      2. Identifying apnea during sedation may be delayed as much as 4 minutes using Oxygen Saturation alone
      3. Use end tidal CO2 for patients on Supplemental Oxygen
  3. Emergency equipment
    1. Oxygen Delivery
      1. Consider High Flow Oxygen for Apneic Oxygenation
      2. Apply Supplemental Oxygen to all patients undergoing Procedural Sedation
        1. Supplemental O2 is controversial, as some argue it delays apnea recognition (if not on EtCO2)
    2. Airway Suction equipment
    3. Nasopharyngeal Airway (Nasal Trumpet)
    4. Bag-valve mask
      1. Administer a few breaths initially to assure that patients may be supported with with bag-valve mask
      2. Be ready for airway collapse (e.g. Sleep Apnea patient with a large Tongue)
        1. Jaw Thrust alone can significantly open the airway
        2. Assistant may be required to perform Jaw Thrust, while a second provider provides bag-valve-mask
        3. Consider inserting 2 Nasal Airways (and an Oral Airway may be inserted if no Gag Reflex)
    5. Intubation equipment
    6. Resuscitation cart
    7. Reversal agents
      1. Naloxone
      2. Flumazenil
        1. Only use if not on chronic Benzodiazepines (risk of acute withdrawal and Status Epilepticus)

IX. Preparation: Resource Limited Environments (e.g. low and middle income countries)

  1. See Resource Limited Environment
  2. Consider alternatives to Conscious Sedation
    1. Defer non-emergent procedures to the most appropriate available local options
    2. Local or Regional Anesthesia is preferred
    3. Consider non-intravenous options as listed below
  3. Preparation
    1. Familiarize yourself with locally available medications
    2. Follow a pre-procedure checklist
    3. Prepare the evironment
      1. Adequate lighting
      2. Clean, organized work area
      3. Disrobe patient for adequate access
    4. Alert all staff to remain vigilant throughout procedure
      1. Assign one person dedicated solely to monitoring during the procedure
    5. Obtain IV Access
      1. Infuse crystalloid (NS or LR)
      2. Consider initial 500 cc or 10-20 cc/kg bolus
    6. Monitoring equipment as available
    7. Emergency airway and breathing equipment prepared and ready for use (ideally as above)
  4. Airway Monitoring
    1. Maintain airway with Jaw Thrust
    2. Monitor for airway obstruction
    3. Nasopharyngeal Airway, suction and intubation equipment should be ready
  5. Breathing monitoring
    1. Pulse Oximeter (preferred if available)
      1. If not available, continuously auscultate Respiratory Rate, volume, rhythm and observe chest rise
    2. Supplemental Oxygen
      1. If not available, use bag-valve mask to improve oxygenation by preventing Atelectasis
  6. Circulation monitoring
    1. Obtain Blood Pressure every 5 minutes
    2. Continuous Pulse Oximetry
      1. If not available, palpate pulse or auscultate heart sounds continuously
  7. References
    1. Acker, Koval and Leeper (2017) Crit Dec Emerg Med 31(4): 3-13

X. Preparation: BiPAP

  1. Indications
    1. Sleep Apnea patient with risk of airway compromise during procedure
    2. Elderly
  2. Starting setting
    1. Inspiratory pressure: 10 cm H2O
    2. Expiratory pressure: 5 cm H2O

XI. Protocol: Two phase Approach (Hennepin protocol, per Jim Miner, MD)

  1. Obtain adequate analgesia with Opioids 20 minutes prior to Procedural Sedation
  2. Administer Procedural Sedation (e.g. Propofol) without analgesia (e.g. Fentanyl)
  3. Analgesia persists through procedure, while not complicating respiratory status

XII. Protocol: Difficult IV Access options

XIII. Precautions

  1. Monitor patient response (grimace, whimper, withdrawal from pain) to procedure
    1. Maintain awareness of inadequate Anesthesia and analgesia, in addition to standard monitoring
  2. Young children
    1. Higher risk of apnea (except with Ketamine)
  3. Pregnancy
    1. See Trauma in Pregnancy
    2. Pregnant patients are higher risk for cardiopulmonary compromise
      1. Decreased Functional Residual Capacity
      2. Increased oxygen demand and resting Respiratory Rate
      3. Baseline relative Hypotension
    3. Avoid Hypoxia, hypercapnia and Hypotension
      1. Risk of adverse fetal effects
    4. Measures to consider
      1. Supplemental Oxygen
      2. Intravenous crystalloid fluid (LR) infusion (and consider bolus)
      3. Vomiting and pulmonary aspiration prophylaxis (e.g. Metoclopramide or H2 Blocker)
      4. Left lateral decubitus position
        1. Increases uteroplacental flow and venous return
        2. Reduce aspiration risk
    5. Safer Anesthetics and Analgesics in pregnancy
      1. See Analgesic Medications in Pregnancy
      2. Avoid Benzodiazepines (e.g. Midazolam)
      3. Ketamine
        1. Avoid in maternal Hypertension
      4. Propofol
        1. Significant risk of Hypotension
      5. Other agents to consider
        1. Nitrous Oxide
        2. Remifentanil

XIV. Preparations: Sedatives - Ketamine

  1. Indications
    1. Preferred Sedative in children (do not use for age <3 months)
    2. Sedation in a patient with a potentially difficult airway
    3. Sedation in critically ill patient (where Hypotension risk with Propofol)
    4. ASA Physical Status Score 2 and 3
  2. Effects
    1. Analgesic and Anesthetic properties
  3. IV
    1. Onset in 1 min, peaks at 1-3 min, dissociation for 15 min, and recovery over 60 min
    2. Initial
      1. Adult: 1.0 mg/kg slow IV over 1-2 min
      2. Child: 1.5 mg/kg slow IV over 1-2 min
    3. Next
      1. Administer 1/2 of intial dose every 10 minutes as needed
  4. IM
    1. Onset in 3-5 min, peaks at 5-20 min, dissociation for 15-30 min, and recovery over 90-150 min
    2. Initial: 2-5 mg/kg IM (adult and child)
    3. Repeat 2 mg/kg IM after 10 min for one dose if needed
  5. Intranasal Ketamine (not in mainstream use yet as of 2022)
    1. Analgesia
      1. Ketamine 1 to 1.5 mg.kg (1/2 in each nostril)
      2. Onset of action: 10 min
    2. Procedural Sedation
      1. Use Ketamine 100 mg/ml if available (maximal nasal dose volume 0.5 ml)
      2. Dose: 2 to 4 mg/kg intranasally
      3. Onset of action: 10 min
      4. Duration: 15-20 min
      5. Observe for 60 min after procedure
    3. Efficacy
      1. Not recommended intranasally for sedation
        1. Amount delivered intranasally is too low for Anesthesia dosing and onset varies widely
      2. Anecdotally not as affective as other routes of Ketamine, and Intranasal Fentanyl
        1. However prior dosing (1 mg/kg) was likely too low for Procedural Sedation
    4. References
      1. Graudins (2015) Ann Emerg Med 65(3): 248-54 [PubMed]
      2. Nordt, Poonai and Ramiakhan in Swadron (2022) EM:Rap 22(3): 5-6
  6. Adverse effects
    1. Peri-procedure Vomiting may occur in up to 28% of children
    2. Least adverse effects in children of the procedural Sedatives
      1. Bhatt (2017) Pediatr 171(10): 957-64 +PMID:28828486 [PubMed]
    3. Laryngospasm (0.3 to 0.4% of cases, especially children)
      1. See Laryngospasm on Induction
      2. See Laryngospasm Notch Maneuver
      3. Typically transient, but risk of airway obstruction
    4. Risk of emergence reaction in up to 10-20% (e.g. Agitation)
      1. Consider concurrent Midazolam in adults (0.03 mg/kg) to counter emergence reaction
      2. Sener (2011) Ann Emerg Med 57(2):109-114 [PubMed]
    5. Older data recommends avoiding in Closed Head Injury (risk of Increased Intracranial Pressure)
      1. Newer data suggests safe in Head Injury
    6. Hypersalivation
      1. Anticholinergics (Atropine, glycopyrrolate) are not recommended to dry secretions
      2. Green (2009) Ann Emerg Med 54(2): 171-80 +PMID:19501426 [PubMed]
    7. Respiratory drive is typically preserved
      1. However, transient apnea (10-20 s) may occur with rapid infusion
      2. Infuse Ketamine slowly (over 1-2 minutes)

XV. Preparations: Sedatives - Propofol

  1. Indications
    1. Preferred procedural Sedative in adults for brief procedures
    2. Indicated for ASA Physical Status Score 2 (non-hypotensive, stable)
      1. Use Ketamine or Etomidate instead in patients at risk of Hypotension
  2. Relative Contraindications
    1. Age <6 months or weight <5 kg
    2. Age >75 years old
    3. ASA Physical Status Class 3 and above
  3. Adverse Effects
    1. Transient Hypotension
    2. Respiratory depression with Hypoxia or apnea (higher doses, esp. adults)
    3. Appears safe in pregnancy and Lactation (limited data)
    4. Safe in soybean and egg allergy
  4. Effects
    1. Propofol is primarily Anesthetic
    2. Peak effect reached in 30-60 seconds with 5-6 minute duration
  5. Administer concurrent Analgesics (e.g Fentanyl 50 mcg increments)
    1. Adult
      1. Initial: 0.5 to 1 mg/kg IV over 20-30 seconds (typically given as smaller increments)
        1. Obese patients: Consider 0.7 to 0.8 mg/kg for starting dose
        2. Thin young patients: Consider 1.5 mg/kg for starting dose (risk of respiratory depression)
        3. Frail elderly patients: Consider 20-30 mg IV for starting dose
      2. Next: 0.25 to 0.5 mg/kg IV every 1 to 3 minutes
      3. Decrease dose in older patients (cummulative required total dose decreases with age)
        1. Age 18-40 years old: 2 mg/kg total dose
        2. Age 41-64 years old: 1.7 mg/kg total dose
        3. Age >64 years old: 1.2 mg/kg total dose
        4. Patanwala (2013) J Emerg Med 44(4): 823-8 +PMID:23333181 [PubMed]
    2. Child
      1. Initial: 1 mg/kg IV (up to 40 mg) over 20-30 seconds (typically given as smaller increments)
        1. Dose per kilogram typically higher in children than adults for adequate sedation
        2. Age <3 years: 2 mg/kg
        3. Older children and teens: 1.5 mg/kg
      2. Next: 0.5 to 1 mg/kg IV (up to 20 mg) every 1 to 3 minutes as needed
    3. Typically no respiratory depression at 1 mg/kg dose
      1. Amnesia occurs at this dose
      2. However, apnea may occur when Propofol is combined with Opioids
    4. Perform painful procedures immediately following infusion
      1. Amnestic effect wears off prior to sedation
  6. Propofol Infusion
    1. Adult: 100 to 150 mcg/kg/min (6 to 9 mg/kg/h)
    2. Child: 100 to 250 mcg/kg/min (6 to 15 mg/kg/h)

XVI. Preparations: Sedatives - Etomidate

  1. Indications
    1. Indicated for ASA Physical Status Score 2 and 3
    2. Consider for sedation in hypotensive adult patient (or Ketamine)
      1. Otherwise Propofol is preferred adult Sedative with greater efficacy, less Myoclonus than Etomidate
      2. Miner (2007) Ann Emerg Med 49(1): 15-22 [PubMed]
  2. Adverse Effects
    1. Myoclonus (20-40% of cases)
      1. Administer Etomidate slowly over 90 seconds
      2. Pretreatment
        1. Fentanyl (or Alfentanil or Sufentanil)
        2. Alternatively, Magnesium Sulfate or Midazolam may be used as pretreatment
    2. Adrenal suppression
      1. Adrenal suppression is typically associated with continuous infusion
      2. Appears safe for single dose
      3. Avoid in Sepsis
    3. Respiratory depression (10% of cases)
    4. Nausea and Vomiting (at emergence)
    5. Seizure threshold lowered (avoid in Seizure Disorder)
  3. Pharmacokinetics
    1. Onset: 15-30 seconds
    2. Duration: 3-8 min (up to 15 min)
  4. Dosing: IV
    1. Initial: 0.1 to 0.2 mg/kg IV
    2. Repeat 0.05 mg/kg IV every 3-5 minutes as needed

XVII. Preparations: Sedatives - Pentobarbital

  1. Indicated in brief sedation
    1. Ideal for CT Head (brief action, Seizure Prophylaxis)
    2. May be accompanied to CT with RN (low risk of respiratory depression, or other serious adverse effects)
  2. Observe for Hypotension
  3. Dose: 2.5 mg/kg IV (may repeat additional 1.25 mg/kg as needed twice)

XVIII. Preparations: Sedatives - Methohexital (Brevital)

  1. Indications
    1. Propofol is preferred over Methohexital
    2. Consider Methohexital where unable to obtain Intravenous Access (can be given rectally)
    3. Safe in pregnancy
  2. Pharmacokinetics
    1. Barbiturate with rapid onset of action, and with IV dosing same as IM dosing
    2. Onset within 30-60 minutes
    3. Duration 3-5 minutes
  3. Adverse Effects
    1. Cardiopulmonary depression
      1. Follow same precautions as for Propofol
    2. Respiratory depression (10-22%)
    3. Hypotension (1-3%)
    4. Paradoxically lowers Seizure threshold (avoid in Seizure Disorder)
      1. Contrast to other Barbiturates which are used to a abort Seizures
    5. Laryngospasm
      1. Give a full dose (additional Methohexital) to fully supersaturate GABA receptors
      2. Otherwise similar management to Ketamine laryngospasm
      3. See Laryngospasm on Induction
    6. Other adverse effects
      1. Vomiting
      2. Cough
      3. Hiccups

XIX. Preparations: Sedatives - Ketaphol or Ketafol (Ketamine with Propofol)

  1. Postulated to reduce risk of Hypotension and apnea of Propofol by cutting dose with Ketamine
  2. Initial studies recommended ratio of 4:1 Propofol to Ketamine for adequate effect
    1. Some protocols start 1:1 ratio Propofol to Ketamine 0.5 then add Propofol to effect
  3. Most studies show no significant benefit over Propofol alone (similar efficacy and safety)
    1. Andolfatto (2012) Ann Emerg Med 59(6): 504-12 [PubMed]
    2. Nejati (2011) Acad Emerg Med 18(8): 800 [PubMed]
    3. Ferguson (2016) Ann Emerg Med 86(5): 574-82 [PubMed]
  4. Typical protocol
    1. Start: Administer mix of Propofol 0.5 mg/kg AND Ketamine 0.5 mg/kg
    2. Next: Administer additional Propofol 0.5 mg/kg every 90 seconds as needed to adequate effect
  5. Effects
    1. Peak onset at 20-60 min with a 15 min duration

XX. Preparations: Sedatives - Midazolam (Versed)

  1. Indications
    1. Other sedation agents are preferred in most cases
    2. Intranasal Versed in children may allow for imaging, Intravenous Access, Laceration Repair
  2. Intravenous (onset 2-3 min and lasts 20-30 min, up to 60 min)
    1. Age 6 months to 5 years
      1. Initial: 0.05 to 0.1 mg/kg IV
      2. Titrate: Up to 1 mg increments IV every 3 min to max of 0.6 mg/kg
    2. Age 6 to 12 years
      1. Initial: 0.025 to 0.05 mg/kg IV
      2. Titrate: Up to 1 mg increments IV every 3 min to max of 0.4 mg/kg
    3. Adults (and over age 12 years)
      1. Initial: 0.02 mg/kg IV (1-2 mg IV)
      2. Titrate: 1 mg increments IV every 3 min
  3. IM (onset 10-20 min and lasts 60-120 min)
    1. Child: 0.1 to 0.15 mg/kg
    2. Adult: 0.07 mg/kg up to 5 mg
  4. Other routes
    1. Oral: 0.5 to 0.75 mg/kg
      1. Peaks at 15-30 min, duration 60-90 min
    2. Nasal: 0.2 to 0.5 mg/kg intranasal (1/2 in each nostril) using 5 mg/ml up to 10 mg
      1. Peaks at 10-15 min, duration 45-60 min
      2. May cause burning Sensation on spraying into nose
    3. Rectal 0.25 to 0.5 mg/kg per Rectum
  5. Contraindicated in pregnancy (Category D), and wait at least 4 hours for Breast Feeding
  6. Commonly used in combination with Fentanyl
    1. When combined with Opioids (e.g. Fentanyl), use lower Midazolam dose
    2. Risk of Deep Sedation with cardiopulmonary depression
  7. Unpredictable at increased doses (risk of respiratory and cardiovascular depression)
    1. Unreliable sedation for painful procedures
    2. Best delivered in incremental doses (e.g. 1 mg increments)
    3. Exercise extra caution in elderly, debilitated, children, hepatic insufficiency, Dementia
  8. Reversal: Flumazenil 0.01 mg/kg up to 2 mg over 15 seconds
    1. Do not use if on longterm Benzodiazepines

XXI. Preparations: Sedatives - Nitrous Oxide

  1. Mixed with 40% oxygen (pre-set)
  2. Dose is self administered by patient breathing through demand valve mask
  3. Onset within 5 minutes and duration <5 minutes after discontinuing
  4. Activity is similar to Opioids
  5. Consider for IV Access start

XXII. Preparations: Sedatives - Dexmedotomidine (Precedex)

  1. Selective alpha-2 agonist with strong Sedative properties but no Analgesic properties (See Dexmedotomidine)
  2. Typically used for IV sedation in the Intensive Care unit (e.g. Mechanical Ventilation, severe Alcohol Withdrawal)
  3. Intranasal: 2-3 mcg/kg
    1. Onset in 13-25 minutes and duration for 85 minutes (longer in adults)
    2. Intranasal use rarely causes Bradycardia or Syncope
    3. Oriby (2019) Anesth Pain Med 9(1): e85227 +PMID:30881910 [PubMed]

XXIII. Preparations: Analgesics - Fentanyl

  1. Nasal: 2 mcg/kg intranasal (1/2 in each nostril) up to a maximum of 100 mcg
    1. Onset of analgesia within 10 minutes and duration of 30 minutes
    2. 2 mcg/kg is equivalent to 0.1 mg/kg Morphine
    3. Bioavailability: 70%
  2. Nebulized: 4 mcg/kg in breath activated neb
    1. As effective as IV Morphine using ultrasonic nebulizer with tight fitting mask
    2. Farahmand (2014) Am J Emerg Med 32(9):1011-5 +PMID:25027194 [PubMed]
  3. IV (onset in 1-3 min, lasting 30-60 min)
    1. Adult: 50 mcg/dose every 3 minutes, titrating to effect
    2. Child: 1 mcg/kg/dose IV every 3 minutes, titrating to effect
      1. Age 1-3 years old: 2-3 mcg/kg/dose every 30-60 minutes as needed
      2. Age 3-12 years old: 1-2 mcg/kg/dose every 30-60 minutes as needed
      3. Age >12 years old: 0.5-1 mcg/kg/dose every 30-60 minutes as needed
  4. Reversal: Naloxone
  5. Adverse effects
    1. Less histamine release than with Morphine
    2. Respiratory depression
      1. Supplemental Oxygen, Jaw Thrust maneuver, bag-valve mask
      2. Use lower doses in combination with Midazolam (Versed)

XXIV. Preparations: Analgesics - Morphine

  1. IV/IM/SC: 0.05 to 0.2 mg/kg every 2-4 hours up to 15 mg (typically given in 2-4 mg increments)
  2. Intramuscular onset of activity may be delayed as long as 30 minutes
  3. Adverse Effects
    1. Nausea or Vomiting
      1. Consider pretreatment with Antiemetic (e.g. Ondansetron)
    2. Hypotension
      1. Consider pretreatment bolus of crystalloid (500 cc or 10-20 cc/kg NS)
    3. Pruritus and/or rash
      1. Typically not Allergic Reaction
      2. Morphine may result in histamine release
  4. Reversal: Naloxone

XXV. Preparations: Analgesics - Miscellaneous Agents

  1. Oxycodone (immediate release)
    1. Oral route (better than IM opiods, without significant delay)
      1. Adults (and over age 12 years) 5-10 mg every 4-6 hours as needed
      2. Child: 0.05 to 0.3 mg/kg/dose (up to 10 mg) every 4-6 hours as needed
    2. Reversal: Naloxone
  2. Hydrocodone-Acetaminophen (Vicodin or Lortab) 2.5 mg/5 ml elixir
    1. Oral: 0.2 mg/kg (up to 1.25 mg if under age 2 years, and up to 5 mg if age 2-12 years)
    2. Reversal: Naloxone
  3. Ketorolac (Toradol)
    1. IV/IM: 0.5 mg/kg (up to 30 mg)

XXVI. Preparations: Older agents to avoid (replaced by other agents above)

  1. Chloral Hydrate
    1. Older oral sedation agent similar to Ethanol with GABA-receptor mediated effects
    2. Rapidly metabolized to the active form, trichloroethanol
    3. Agitation and Nausea are common
    4. Common use among pediatric dentists (with case reports of outpatient pediatric deaths)
    5. Ketamine or oral/intranasal Midazolam are far preferred over oral Chloral Hydrate

XXVII. Management: Disposition

  1. Continue monitoring until no risk of respiratory depression
  2. Observe for at least 2 hours if any reversal agent used (e.g. Naloxone, Flumazenil)
  3. Discharge after patient is alert and back to baseline mental status
  4. Give Discharge Instructions
    1. Family or friend should observe the patient for several hours after discharge
    2. Patients may expect Nausea, Fatigue or light headedness for up to 24 hours after discharge

XXVIII. Complications: Common

  1. Hypoxia (40.2 per 1000 sedations)
    1. Highest risk with Profol or with combined Midazolam with Opiate
    2. Open airway with Jaw Thrust
    3. Supplemental Oxygen
    4. Tactile and verbal stimulation
  2. Vomiting (16.4 per 1000 sedations)
    1. Highest risk with Ketamine
    2. Consider prophylactic Antiemetic in those at higher risk but evidence is lacking (see above)
    3. Suction airway
    4. Place patient in left lateral decubitus position
    5. Maintain airway management and consider definitive airway (i.e. Endotracheal Intubation)
    6. Administer Antiemetic (e.g. Ondansetron)
  3. Hypotension (15.2 per 1000 sedations)
    1. Highest risk with Propofol or combined Midazolam with an Opiate
    2. Typically resolves spontaneously
    3. Consider crystalloid fluid (NS or LR) bolus of 500 ml (or 10-20 ml/kg)
    4. Consider Push Dose Pressor (e.g. Phenylephrine) for refractory Hypotension
  4. Apnea (12.4 per 1000 sedations)
    1. Highest risk with Midazolam with or without an Opiate
    2. Capnography allows for earlier recognition (contrast with delayed recognition with Oxygen Saturation)
    3. Supplemental Oxygen
    4. Bag-Valve-Mask Ventilation
    5. Consider Endotracheal Intubation
    6. Consider reversal agents (e.g. Naloxone or Flumazenil)
  5. References
    1. Bellolio (2016) Acad Emerg Med 23(2): 119-34 [PubMed]

XXIX. Complications: Uncommon

  1. Pulmonary aspiration (1.2 per 1000 sedations)
    1. Suction airway
    2. Supplemental Oxygen
    3. Maintain airway management and consider definitive airway (i.e. Endotracheal Intubation)
    4. Consider antibiotic coverage for Aspiration Pneumonia
  2. Agitation
    1. More common with Ketamine-related emergence reactions
    2. Also Agitation occurs paradoxically in children with Benzodiazepines (up to 15% of cases)
    3. Consider Benzodiazepine (e.g. Versed), unless of course the Benzodiazepine was causative
    4. Calm redirection can help patients more calmly emerge
  3. Sinus Bradycardia
    1. Typically resolves spontaneously
    2. Atropine may be dosed if needed
  4. Laryngospasm (3-4 per 1000 sedations with Ketamine)
    1. More common with Ketamine (esp. if comorbid Asthma or acute URI)
    2. May respond to Laryngospasm Notch Maneuver
    3. Deliver High Flow Oxygen
    4. Attempt bag valve ventilation
    5. Consider Paralytic Agent (e.g. Succinylcholine or Rocuronium) and intubation
  5. References
    1. Bellolio (2016) Acad Emerg Med 23(2): 119-34 [PubMed]

XXX. References

  1. Acker, Koval and Leeper (2017) Crit Dec Emerg Med 31(4): 3-13
  2. Braude in Herbert (2013) EM:Rap 13(11): 14
  3. Claudius and Behar in Herbert (2019) EM:Rap 19(12): 15-6
  4. Kay (2015) Crit Dec Emerg Med 29(8): 11-17
  5. Lester and Braude in Herbert (2014) EM:Rap 14(5): 5-6
  6. Weingart in Majoewsky (2012) EM:RAP 12(2): 8
  7. Miner (2012) APLS Lecture, HCMC, Minneapolis
  8. Hamilton (2012) Tarascon Pharmacopeia, Jones and Bartlett, Burlington
  9. Rispoli (2002) Tarascon Pocket Orthopedics, Loma Linda, p. 115
  10. Shahbaz and Kivlehan (2018) Crit Dec Emerg Med 32(8): 19-28
  11. Singh in Blaivas (2012) Emergency Medicine - an International Perspective, p. 199-208
  12. Strayer in Herbert (2017) EM:Rap 17(12): 17-9
  13. University Minnesota Childrens - Pediatric Emergency Drug Card
  14. Becker (2012) Anesth Prog 59:28-42 [PubMed]
  15. Brown (2005) Am Fam Physician 71:85-90 [PubMed]
  16. Godwin (2014) Ann Emerg Med 63(2): 247-58 [PubMed]
  17. Miller (2019) Ann Emerg Med 73(5): 470-80 [PubMed]

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