II. Epidemiology

  1. Lifetime risk: 20% in U.S.
  2. Prevalence: 5.2 Million with CHF in the United States
  3. Incidence: 400,000 cases CHF diagnosed per year
  4. Morbidity: 870,000 hospitalizations (estimates in 2013 approach 1 Million)
    1. Re-hospitalization rate within 30 days approaches 20%
  5. Mortality: 200,000 patients die from CHF per year
  6. CHF costs
    1. Accounts for 5-10% of all hospital admissions
    2. Annual U.S. Cost: $38.1 billion ($44.6 billion by 2015)

III. Pathophysiology

  1. Heart Failure is a syndrome, not a disease
    1. Heart Failure is a final common pathway
    2. Maximize treatment of the underlying causes
    3. Control the causes and prevent end organ damage

IV. Precautions

  1. Heart Failure is a clinical diagnosis best made by an astute clinician with history and exam
  2. Labs (e.g. BNP) and diagnostics (e.g. Echocardiogram) should be adjunctive only to confirm and follow the diagnosis

VI. Causes

VII. Types

  1. Systolic Dysfunction (60-70% of Heart Failure cases)
    1. Decreased contractility
    2. Decreased Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction
  2. Diastolic Dysfunction (30-40% of Heart Failure cases)
    1. Decreased compliance
    2. Decreased filling
    3. Variable Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction

VIII. Labs

X. Classification: Congestive Heart Failure

XII. Resources

  1. American Heart Association CHF Website
    1. http://www.americanheart.org/chf

XIII. Associated Conditions

  1. Central Sleep Apnea (60% pretest probability)

Images: Related links to external sites (from Bing)

Related Studies