II. Definitions

  1. Postpartum Cardiomyopathy
    1. Left Ventricular Systolic Dysfunction onset in late pregnancy or first 5 months postpartum

III. Epidemiology

  1. Incidence: 1:1000 to 4000 live births
  2. Onset
    1. Typical: First week after delivery (up to the first month)
    2. Range: Second trimester to 5 months postpartum

IV. Risk Factors

  1. Advanced maternal age
  2. Preeclampsia
  3. Hypertension
  4. History of Peripartum Cardiomyopathy with prior pregnancy
  5. Multiple Gestation
  6. Multigravida
  7. Black race
  8. Poverty
  9. Cocaine Abuse
  10. Prolonged exposure to Tocolytic medications >4 weeks
    1. Bassett (1985) Obstet Gynecol 66(6): 755-61 [PubMed]

V. Findings

VI. Labs

VII. Differential Diagnosis

  1. See Cardiomyopathy
  2. Preeclampsia
  3. Postpartum Cardiomyopathy is a diagnosis of exclusion when no other Cardiomyopathy cause is identified

VIII. Imaging

IX. Diagnostics

  1. Electrocardiogram
    1. May be normal or only demonstrate Sinus Tachycardia
  2. Echocardiogram
    1. First-line study

X. Management

  1. See Congestive Heart Failure
  2. Pregnancy precautions
    1. Avoid ACE Inhibitors and Angiotensin Receptor Blockers
    2. Exercise caution with Diuretics (risk of Hypotension and uterine hypoperfusion)

XI. Prognosis

  1. Mortality (longterm): 11-16%
  2. Most women recover from Postpartum Cardiomyopathy
    1. Some women may have persistently reduced ejection fraction
    2. Future pregnancy mortality approaches 25% if ejection fraction has not returned to normal
    3. Hilfiker-Kleiner (2017) Eur J Heart Fail 19(12): 1723-8 [PubMed]

XII. References

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