II. Epidemiology

  1. Demographics
    1. Overall Hypertension Prevalence: 30% of U.S. Adults
      1. White Adults in US: 20% are hypertensive
      2. Black Adults in US: 30% are hypertensive
    2. Age 60-69 years old: 65% are hypertensive
      1. Of all hypertensives, >50% are over age 65 years
  2. Outcomes
    1. Best predictor to outcome varies by age
      1. Diastolic Blood Pressure best predictor <50 years
      2. SBP and DBP predict outcomes equally ages 50-59
      3. Pulse Pressure best predictor age >60 years
    2. Coronary Artery Disease
      1. Hypertension Causes 35-45% morbidity and mortality
    3. Cerebrovascular Accident
      1. Relative Risk increases 1.84 for each 10 mmHg DBP
      2. Midlife Hypertension raises longterm CVA risk
      3. Seshadri (2001) Arch Intern Med 161:2343-50 [PubMed]
    4. Alzheimer's Disease
      1. Increased SBP in middle age is predisposing factor
    5. Reference
      1. (1995) Lancet 346(8991):1647-53 [PubMed]
      2. Kivipelto (2001) BMJ 322:1447-51 [PubMed]

III. Definitions

IV. Types

  1. Essential Hypertension (Primary Hypertension)
    1. Stage 1-2 (DBP 90-104) in 80% of cases
  2. Accelerated Malignant Hypertension
    1. Recent substantial Blood Pressure increase
    2. Associated with Retinal vessel damage
      1. Retinal Hemorrhages
      2. Retinal exudates
      3. Papilledema
    3. Diastolic Blood Pressure over 140 mmHg
  3. Isolated Systolic Hypertension
    1. Systolic Blood Pressure: >160 mmHg
    2. Diastolic Blood Pressure: <90 mmHg
    3. Risks
      1. Coronary Artery Disease
      2. Cerebrovascular Accident
    4. Onset: 5th decade
    5. Affects 11% of those over age 75 years
    6. Results from progressive fall in vessel compliance

V. Causes: Secondary Hypertension

  1. See Hypertension Causes
  2. Secondary Hypertension accounts for 5-10% of Hypertension Causes overall
    1. In age 18 to 40 years old, accounts for 30% of Hypertension

VIII. Management

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Related Studies

Ontology: Hypertensive disease (C0020538)

Definition (MEDLINEPLUS)

Blood pressure is the force of your blood pushing against the walls of your arteries. Each time your heart beats, it pumps out blood into the arteries. Your blood pressure is highest when your heart beats, pumping the blood. This is called systolic pressure. When your heart is at rest, between beats, your blood pressure falls. This is the diastolic pressure.

Your blood pressure reading uses these two numbers, the systolic and diastolic pressures. Usually they are written one above or before the other. A reading of

  • 119/79 or lower is normal blood pressure
  • 140/90 or higher is high blood pressure
  • Between 120 and 139 for the top number, or between 80 and 89 for the bottom number is prehypertension

High blood pressure usually has no symptoms, but it can cause serious problems such as stroke, heart failure, heart attack and kidney failure. You can control high blood pressure through healthy lifestyle habits and taking medicines, if needed.

NIH: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute

Definition (NCI_CDISC) Pathological increase in blood pressure defined as one of the following: History of hypertension diagnosed and treated with medication, diet, and/or exercise; On at least 2 separate occasions, documented blood pressure greater than 140 mm Hg systolic and/or 90 mm Hg diastolic in patients without diabetes or chronic kidney disease, or blood pressure greater than 130 mm Hg systolic or 80 mm Hg diastolic in patients with diabetes or chronic kidney disease; Currently on pharmacological therapy for the treatment of hypertension.
Definition (NCI) Blood pressure that is abnormally high.
Definition (NCI_CTCAE) A disorder characterized by a pathological increase in blood pressure; a repeatedly elevation in the blood pressure exceeding 140 over 90 mm Hg.
Definition (NCI_NCI-GLOSS) A blood pressure of 140/90 or higher. High blood pressure usually has no symptoms. It can harm the arteries and cause an increase in the risk of stroke, heart attack, kidney failure, and blindness.
Definition (CSP) persistantly high arterial blood pressure.
Definition (MSH) Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.
Concepts Disease or Syndrome (T047)
MSH D006973
ICD9 997.91, 401-405.99
ICD10 I10-I15.9 , I10, I10-I15
SnomedCT 38341003, 155302005, 194757006, 194760004, 155295004, 194756002, 266287006, 194794002, 195537001
LNC MTHU020789, LA14293-7, LA7444-8
English Hypertension, BLOOD PRESSURE HIGH, HYPERTENSION ARTERIAL, Hypertensive disease NOS, Hypertensive diseases, [X]Hypertensive diseases, Systemic hypertension, Hypertensive disorder, systemic arterial, hyperpiesia, hyperpiesis, systemic HTN, systemic hypertension (diagnosis), systemic hypertension, Hypertension arterial, Blood pressure high, HBP, HT, Hypertension NOS, Surg comp - hypertension, HTN, Hypertension [Disease/Finding], high blood pressure, hypertensive disorder, hypertensive vascular disease, arterial hypertension, arterial hypertension systemic, vascular hypertension, blood high pressure, high blood pressure disorder, systemic arterial hypertension, hypertensive disease, Hypertensive diseases (I10-I15), Complications affecting other specified body systems, not elsewhere classified, hypertension, High Blood Pressure, Hypertensive disease NOS (disorder), Hypertensive disease (disorder), (Hypertensive disease) or (hypertension), (Hypertensive disease) or (hypertension) (disorder), [X]Hypertensive diseases (disorder), hypertension, BLOOD PRESSURE, INCREASED, BLOOD PRESSURE, HIGH, Hypertensive Disorder, HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE, INCREASED BLOOD PRESSURE, HYPERTENSION, PRESSURE, HIGH BLOOD, High blood pressure, Hyperpiesia, Hyperpiesis, Hypertensive vascular degeneration, Hypertensive vascular disease, BP - High blood pressure, High blood pressure disorder, Systemic arterial hypertension, HBP - High blood pressure, BP+ - Hypertension, HT - Hypertension, Hypertensive disorder, systemic arterial (disorder), Hypertensive disorder, HTN - Hypertension, blood pressure; high, high; arterial tension, high; blood pressure, Hypertension, NOS, Hypertensive disease, NOS, Raised blood pressure (disorder), Blood Pressure, High, Blood Pressures, High, High Blood Pressures, Vascular Hypertensive Disorder, Hypertensive disease, HYPERTENSIVE DISEASE
French HYPERTENSION ARTERIELLE, Pression artérielle élevée, PAH, Hypertension SAI, TH, HYPERTENSION, TENSION ARTERIELLE E, Hypertension chronique, Hypertension permanente, Hypertension artérielle, Hypertension
Portuguese HIPERTENSAO, Hipertensão arterial NE, Hipertensão arterial, Pressão arterial alta, HYPERTENSAO ARTERIAL, PRESSAO SANGUINEA ELEVADA, Pressão Arterial Alta, Pressão Sanguínea Alta, Hipertensão
Spanish HIPERTENSION, PRESION SANGUINEA ALTA, Presión sanguínea alta, HTA, Hipertensión NEOM, Hipertensión arterial, HT, HIPERTENSION ARTERIAL, enfermedad hipertensiva, SAI, [X]enfermedades hipertensivas (trastorno), enfermedad hipertensiva, SAI (trastorno), [X]enfermedades hipertensivas, Hypertensive disease NOS, degeneración vascular hipertensiva, enfermedad hipertensiva, enfermedad vascular hipertensiva, hiperpiesia, hiperpiesis, hipertensión arterial (trastorno), hipertensión arterial, presión arterial alta, tensión arterial alta, tensión arterial elevada, Hipertensión, Presión Sanguínea Alta
German HYPERTONIE, Hypertonie, arteriell, Blutdruck, hoch, HBP, HT, Hypertonie NNB, BLUTDRUCK HOCH, HYPERTONIE ARTERIELL, Hypertension, Hypertonie
Dutch hypertensie NAO, hoge bloeddruk, arteriële hypertensie, bloeddruk; hoog, hoog; arteriële druk, hoog; bloeddruk, hypertensie, Bloeddruk, hoge, Hypertensie
Italian Ipertensione (HT), Ipertensione NAS, Pressione del sangue elevata, Ipertensione, Pressione sanguigna alta, Ipertensione arteriosa
Japanese 動脈性高血圧, 高血圧NOS, コウケツアツ, コウケツアツNOS, ドウミャクセイコウケツアツ, 高血圧, 高血圧症
Swedish Högt blodtryck
Czech hypertenze, Arteriální hypertenze, Vysoký krevní tlak, Hypertenze NOS, Hypertenze, vysoký krevní tlak, hypertonie
Finnish Kohonnut verenpaine
Polish Nadciśnienie
Hungarian Arteriás hypertonia, Hypertensio, HT, RR magas, Hypertonia k.m.n., Magas vérnyomás
Norwegian Høyt blodtrykk, Hypertensjon, Hypertoni

Ontology: Essential Hypertension (C0085580)

Definition (CSP) hypertension occurring without preexisting renal disease or known organic cause.
Concepts Disease or Syndrome (T047)
MSH C562386
ICD9 401.9, 401
ICD10 I10
SnomedCT 155296003, 194757006, 266228004, 194760004, 59621000
English Unspecified essential hypertension, primary hypertension, Essential hypertension NOS, Essential (primary) hypertension, HYPERTENSION, ESSENTIAL, EHT, idiopathic hypertension, essential hypertension, essential hypertension (diagnosis), Essential hypertension, unspecified, Hypertension NOS, Hypertension;essential, hypertension primary, essential hypertension unspecified, Hypertension, Essential, Essential hypertension NOS (disorder), Essential hypertension, Primary hypertension, Idiopathic hypertension, Systemic primary arterial hypertension, Essential hypertension (disorder), Essential hypertension, NOS, Primary hypertension, NOS, Essential Hypertension, Primary Hypertension
Italian Ipertensione essenziale, Ipertensione essenziale non specificata, Ipertensione primitiva
Dutch niet-gespecificeerde essentiële hypertensie, primaire hypertensie, Essentiële (primaire) hypertensie, essentiële hypertensie
French Hypertension essentielle non précisée, Hypertension essentielle, non précisée, Hypertension primitive, Hypertension artérielle essentielle
German essentielle Hypertonie, unspezifisch, unspezifische essentielle Hypertonie, Essentielle (primaere) Hypertonie, primaere Hypertonie, essentielle Hypertonie
Portuguese Hipertensão essencial NE, Hipertensão primária, Hipertensão arterial essencial
Spanish Hipertensión esencial no especificada, Hipertensión primaria, hipertensión esencial, SAI, hipertensión esencial, SAI (trastorno), hipertensión arterial esencial (trastorno), hipertensión arterial esencial, hipertensión arterial idiopática, hipertensión arterial primaria sistémica, hipertensión arterial primaria, Hipertensión esencial
Japanese 本態性高血圧症、詳細不明, 本態性高血圧症, ホンタイセイコウケツアツショウ, ホンタイセイコウケツアツショウショウサイフメイ, ゲンパツセイコウケツアツ, 原発性高血圧
Czech Blíže neurčená esenciální hypertenze, Esenciální hypertenze, Esenciální hypertenze blíže neurčená, Primární hypertenze
Korean 본태성(원발성) 고혈압
Hungarian Primaer hypertonia, Essentialis hypertonia, Meghatározatlan essentialis hypertonia, Ismeretlen eredetű nem meghatározott hypertonia