II. Updated: May 2022

  1. Urethral Stricture (urology, Urethra)
    1. Added complete review including diagnosis and management
  2. Oral Lesion (dental, mucosa)
    1. Updated Aphthous Ulcer, Oral Candidiasis, Geographic Tongue, Hairy Tongue, Herpes Labialis, Leukoplakia, Torus Palatinus, Oral Lichen Planus
  3. Venous Thromboembolism (hemeonc, cv)
    1. Extensive updates with a focus on recurrent VTE management
    2. Added two decision rules: HERDOO2 Model and Orbit Bleeding Risk Score
    3. Also updated Breakthrough VTE
  4. Sleep Disorders (psych, sleep)
    1. Extensive updates
  5. Sexually Transmitted Infection (id, std)
    1. Extensive Updates to Sexually Transmitted Infection, especially regarding gonorrohea and Chlamydia
    2. Include pharyngeal and rectal GC, Ch testing when indicated
  6. Ulcerative Colitis (gi, ibd)
    1. Extensive updates
  7. Ivabradine (cv, pharm)
    1. CHF agent - updated Drug Interactions, adverse effects, contraindications
  8. Cascades of Care (manage, legal)
    1. Extra tests beget more tests
  9. Shingles Vaccine (id, immune)
    1. Shingrix is now recommended for Immunocompromised patients, age >19 years
  10. Alcoholic Hepatitis (gi, liver)
    1. Extensive updates
  11. Lung Abscess (lung, id)
    1. Extensive updates
  12. Near-Hanging (er, ent)
    1. Extensive Updates
  13. Myocarditis (cv, id)
    1. General updates to the diagnostic approach
  14. Nasal Fracture (ent, nose)
    1. Updates on imaging approach (skip the xray)
  15. Hepatitis B Vaccine (id, immune)
    1. Hepaitis B Vaccine is recommended for all unvaccinated adults ages 19 to 59 years
  16. Fever in the Returning Traveler (id, fever)
    1. Extensive updates
  17. Intraosseous Line (er, procedure)
    1. Added image for access sites
  18. Analgesic Overuse Headache (neuro, Headache)
    1. A few updates
  19. Monkshood Poisoning (er, toxin)
    1. Added
  20. Tetrahydrocannabinol (psych, cd)
    1. Delta-8 THC is a synthetic, chemically similar to THC (delta-9), but with risk of life threatening toxicity
  21. Myasthenia Gravis (neuro, motor)
    1. Updates
  22. Tick Borne Illness (er, derm)
    1. Updates
  23. Alpha Gal Reaction (ent, allergy)
    1. Added
  24. Powassan Encephalitis (neuro, id)
    1. Added
  25. Southern Tick Associated Rash Illness
    1. Added
  26. Gabapentin (neuro, pharm)
    1. Updates
  27. Agitated Delirium (psych, behavior)
    1. Updates
  28. Scaphoid Fracture (ortho, wrist)
    1. Short Arm Cast WITHOUT thumb appears as effective as Thumb Spica Cast, and with better hand function while casted
  29. Elbow Ossification Centers (ortho, anatomy)
    1. Added image for Elbow Ossification Centers (CRITOE Mnemonic)
  30. Homeopathy (pharm, alternative)
    1. Solutions so dilute, they may lack even a single molecule of "active" ingredient, but could have harmful contaminants
    2. Who knows? Not the consumer, and not the FDA or USP, since these are unregulated
  31. Peptic Ulcer (gi, pud)
    1. Glycopyrolate was originally used in the 1960s for peptic ulcers to reduce gastric secretions
    2. However, since that time, much more effective medications are available (e.g. H2 Blockers, Proton Pump Inhibitors)
    3. Yet, in 2022 Dartisla ODT was released at $500/90 tablets, a 10 fold markup over generic glycopyrolate
    4. Avoid glycopyrolate (including Dartisla ODT) in Peptic Ulcer Disease (we have much better. less expensive treatments)
  32. Fluoride Supplementation (pharm, mineral)
    1. Added dental varnish (had been included in Oral Health in Children)
  33. Delayed Antibiotic Prescription (pharm, id)
    1. Example: Acute Sinusitis <10 days of symptoms (to start if symptoms refractory to non-antibiotics at >10-14 days)
    2. Delayed Antibiotic Prescriptions result in decreased antibiotic use, without adverse outcomes
  34. Covid19 (lung, id)
    1. Added AAP Return to Play guidelines for child and teen athletes following Covid 19 infection
  35. Preparticipation Physical Evaluation (sports, exam)
    1. Added Electrocardiogram precautions
  36. Alcohol Intoxication (psych, cd)
    1. General updates
  37. Hepatitis B Serology (gi, lab)
    1. Added another Serology interpretation table
  38. Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis (hemeonc, marrow)
    1. Rare condition presenting in young children age<3 with atypical, refractory Seborrheic Dermatitis or Eczema
  39. Plenity (endo, pharm)
    1. Updated
  40. Mild Closed Head Injury (er, neuro)
    1. I-Stat TBI Plasma detects 2 markers of intracranial injury (UCH-L1, GFAP)
    2. May be used to risk stratify to Head CT Imaging in adults within 12 hours of Closed Head Injury with GCS 13 to 15
    3. CT Indicated if UCH-L1 > 327 pg/ml, or GFAP >22 22 pg/ml
    4. Test Sensitivity 97.6% for intracranial Head Injury and Negative Predictive Value 99.6%
  41. Bacterial Meningitis (neuro, id)
    1. Updated decision rules
  42. Alopecia Areata (derm, hair)
    1. Updated
  43. Zinc Deficiency (pharm, minerals)
    1. Updated Zinc Deficiency and Zinc
  44. Clinical Practice Guideline (manage, research)
    1. Updated with pitfalls, resources

III. Updates: April 2022

  1. Sacroiliac Joint Dysfunction (ortho, L-spine)
    1. Extensive updates
  2. Pediatric Murmur (cv, exam, peds)
    1. Extensive updates to Heart Murmur, systolic murmur, Diastolic Murmur, Congenital Heart Disease and Pediatric Murmur
  3. Prevnar 20 (id, immunize)
    1. Pneumococcal Vaccine recommendations by CDC have changed every few years and are confusing
    2. Pneumococcal Vaccination is recommended for over age 65 years and those with risk factors
    3. As of 2022, Prevnar 20 ALONE replaces other Pneumococcal Vaccines
    4. If Prevnar 13 or Vaxneuvance are used for conjugate Vaccine, then also give Pneumovax 23 (at interval)
  4. Telemedicine Diabetes Mellitus Evaluation (endo, exam, dm)
    1. Provider and nurse diabetes Telemedicine visits improve outcomes and glycemic control (esp. Type 2 Diabetes)
    2. Remote Glucose monitoring is among the most effective Telemedicine strategies
  5. Corticosteroid (endo, pharm)
    1. Added Corticosteroid tapering indications (>3 weeks of use, disease flare expected on stopping)
    2. Also added physiology related information
  6. Thalassemia (hemeonc, Hemoglobin)
    1. AFP Journal has an excellent review of Thalassemia in March 2022 issue
    2. Article brings into focus the management and complications of Thalassemia based on transfusion dependent or not
    3. Extensive updates to a topic that I feel I understand much better after reading this article
    4. Also completed a Hemoglobin diagram
  7. Fever Without Focus Management Birth to 3 Months (id, peds)
    1. Extensive updates to the well appearing febrile infant protocol that changed in fall of 2021
  8. Medications in Lactation (ob, pharm)
    1. Updated Medications in Lactation and Breast Feeding Problems for the Mother
  9. Menstrual Cycle (gyn, exam)
    1. Extensive additions to the physiology of the Menstrual Cycle including a new diagram
  10. Intussusception (surgery, gi)
    1. Updates
  11. Monteggia Fracture (ortho, elbow)
    1. Do not miss the Radial Head Dislocation!
    2. Added image for Forearm Fracture dislocations (GRUM)
  12. Narrow Pulse Pressure (cv, exam)
    1. May predict circulatory collapse in Trauma with Hemorrhage
    2. Prehospital Narrow Pulse Pressure predicts severe Trauma and need for aggressive Resuscitation
    3. Interpret in combination with Trauma Evaluation and other markers (Hypotension, Shock Index)
  13. Septic Olecranon Bursitis (ortho, id)
    1. Bursa Aspiration for Gram Stain and culture has been historically recommended in all cases of Septic Bursitis
    2. However, based on new ED based study, empiric antibiotic management without aspiration may be a safe and effective strategy
  14. Health Care Associated Infection (id, prevent)
    1. Updates to CAUTI, CRBI, VAP, C. difficile, Surgical Site Infection, Antibiotic Resistant Infection
  15. Insulin (endo, pharm)
    1. Added additional information about Insulin U-500
  16. Hyperparathyroidism (endo, Parathyroid)
    1. Extensive updates to Hypercalcemia and Hyperparathyroidism
    2. Also updated Hypocalcemia and Hypoparathyroidism
  17. Hypopituitarism (endo, pituitary)
    1. Added
  18. CT Angiography in Gastrointestinal Bleeding (gi, rad)
    1. Preferred test when Lower GI Bleed patient cannot undergo endoscopy, with significant Lower GI Bleeding
  19. Cerebral Venous Thrombosis (neuro, cv)
    1. Updated risk factors, precautions, presentation, management
  20. Cerebral Arteriovenous Malformation (neuro, cv)
    1. Added, and also added Arteriovenous Malformation
  21. Cerebral T Waves (cv, ekg)
    1. Associated with large Intracranial Hemorrhage (also seen in cerebral edema, Ischemic CVA, PRES)
    2. Typically in precordial leads, and T Inversion may be >20 mm
    3. May be associated with Prolonged QTc
  22. Altered Level of Consciousness in Children (neuro, peds)
    1. Added with an extensive protocol and differential diagnosis
  23. Pneumonia Management in Children (id, lung)
    1. Updates regarding antibiotic selection and shorter durations (5 days)
  24. Psychological First Aid (psych, exam)
    1. Added lay person intervention in Suicidality
  25. Buprenorphine (pharm, Analgesic)
    1. Added dental decay related adverse effects
  26. Melatonin (pharm, alternative)
    1. Updates regarding safety (not recommended in pregnancy and Lactation), may cause Growth Delay in children
    2. Updated dosing in children
  27. Diabetic Neuropathy (endo, neuro)
    1. Updates on medication management
  28. Acute Angle-Closure Glaucoma (eye, Glaucoma)
    1. Updated exam and management
  29. Buprenorphine (pharm, Analgesic)
    1. Oral Buprenorphine preparations (e.g. buccal, sublingual) may increase risk of Tooth Decay
  30. Eczematous Dermatitis (derm, dry)
    1. Added new agents (monoclonal antibodies, JAK Inhibitors)
  31. Flecainide Overdose (cv, pharm)
    1. Reviewed toxicity findings and management
  32. Body Packer (er, toxin)
    1. Additional management including Whole Bowel Irrigation added to protocol
  33. Subcutaneous Hematoma Drainage (surgery, procedure)
    1. Added
  34. Postoperative Oral Bleeding (dental, mucosa)
    1. Added based on author experiences
    2. Limited evidence for approaches gleamed from expert opinion, including otolaryngology
  35. Hemophilia B (hemeonc, coags)
    1. Updates to management
  36. Wound Closure with Staples (surgery, procedure)
    1. Added
  37. Auricular Field Block (surgery, procedure)
    1. Updated
  38. Retrograde Urethrogram (urology, procedure)
    1. Updated
  39. Central Cord Syndrome (ortho, c-spine)
    1. Updated
  40. Spinal Epidural Abscess (ortho, l-spine)
    1. Spinal Epidural Abscess is frequently misdiagnosed on initial presentation
    2. Be alert for red flag presentations (esp. with back pain)
    3. Unexplained fever is present in 86% of cases
    4. Focal neurologic deficits with progressive or disabling symptoms is present in 82% of cases
  41. Tramadol (pharm, Analgesic)
    1. Additional Tramadol updates (many reasons to avoid)
    2. Read the Tox and the Hound (Tramadont)
  42. PF Ratio (lung, lab)
    1. Allows interpretation of ABG PaO2 while on Supplemental Oxygen
  43. Energy Metabolism (endo, exam)
    1. Added additional factors affecting Energy Metabolism
  44. Ear Canal Bleeding after Cerumen Removal (ent, ear)
    1. Continuous Ear Canal Bleeding after Cerumen Removal by ENT lead to my learning of a quick trick to control bleeding (ear wick)
  45. Ceftazidime-Avibactam (id, pharm)
    1. Updates
  46. Phosphine Toxicity (er, toxin)
    1. Added

IV. Updates: March 2022

  1. Maturity Onset Diabetes of the Young (endo, diabetes)
    1. MODY accounts for 1 to 5% of Diabetes Mellitus cases and often misdiagnosed as Type 1 or Type 2 Diabetes
    2. MODY is typically Autosomal Dominant (3 genetic defects account for >95% of cases)
    3. MODY results from non-autoimmune deficient Insulin secretion, with MODY 1 and MODY 3 typically requiring treatment
    4. MODY 1 and 3 are highly sensitive to Sulfonylureas (with Hypoglycemia risk), which often maintain efficacy for decades
  2. Hemoptysis (lung, sx)
    1. Extensive updates
  3. Borderline Personality Disorder (psych, behavior)
    1. Extensive Updates
  4. Foot Drop (neuro, exam)
    1. Added a page on Foot Drop (thanks to Dr. Wesam Khalfalla for the suggestion)
  5. Tracheostomy Obstruction (lung, procedure)
    1. Updates added to precautions in Hypoxia management
  6. Intranasal Ketamine (surgery, pharm)
    1. Updates with sedation dosing which are 2-4 fold higher dosing than the Analgesic dosing
  7. Left Ventricular Hypertrophy Related EKG Changes (cv, ekg)
    1. Precautions regarding High Left Ventricular Voltage in healthy young patients, esp. athletes (not LVH)
  8. Gastrointestinal Metabolism (gi, anatomy)
    1. Extensive updates to the physiology of Digestion including multiple diagrams
    2. Diagrams added for Carbohydrate Metabolism, Lipid Metabolism, Protein Metabolism and overall Digestion mechanisms
    3. Also created diagrams related to Glycolysis, Gluconeogenesis, Kreb Cycle
  9. Intestinal Atresia (gi, peds)
    1. Added, and also updated malrotation and Midgut Volvulus
  10. Respiratory Physiology (lung, anatomy)
    1. Finally completed a diagram of Lung Physiology
  11. Hypothalamus (neuro, anatomy)
    1. Added Hypothalamus-Pituitary Hormone physiology diagram
  12. Calcium Metabolism (renal, lab)
    1. Updated the Calcium Metabolism image to incorporate Vitamin D synthesis and activation
  13. Thyroid Anatomy (endo, anatomy)
    1. Added Thyroid function diagram
  14. Adrenal Gland (endo, anatomy)
    1. Added adrenal function diagram
  15. Aldosterone (endo, lab)
    1. Added a topic on Aldosterone and mineralocortoid
  16. Glucose Metabolism (endo, exam)
    1. Added diagrams for Gluconeogenesis (and Ketogenesis), Glycolysis and Carbohydrate Metabolism
  17. Sleep Problems in Children (psych, peds)
    1. Extensive updates, including added Parasomnias
  18. Unknown Ingestion (er, toxin)
    1. Extensive updates
  19. Animal Bite (er, derm)
    1. Extensive Updates
  20. Cervical Ripening (ob, ld)
    1. Updates to techniques
  21. Labor Induction (ob, ld)
    1. Updated with Labor Induction indications including Gestational age criteria per condition
    2. Added Amniotomy
  22. Nerve Agent Exposure (er, toxin)
    1. Updates
  23. Sugammadex (neuro, pharm)
    1. Updates
  24. Human Trafficking (prevent, abuse)
    1. Updates
  25. Intracompartmental Pressure Monitor (ortho, procedure)
    1. Updates
  26. Tracheal Suctioning (er, procedure)
    1. Updates
  27. Fever of Unknown Origin (id, fever)
    1. Updates
  28. Fluvoxamine (psych, pharm)
    1. Updates (due to increased adjunctive use for Covid, but mixed evidence of benefit)
  29. Cannabinoid Intoxication (psych, cd)
    1. Additional updates for accidental THC Intoxication in children
  30. Inferior Shoulder Dislocation (ortho, Shoulder)
    1. Updates to management including Shoulder reduction of inferior dislocations
  31. Closed Thoracic Lavage (lung, procedure)
    1. Added
  32. Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension (neuro, csf)
    1. Updated MRI findings
  33. Intravenous Acetaminophen (pharm, Analgesic)
    1. IV Acetaminophen (Ofirmev) has had minimal use since release in 2010; costs $30/dose compared with $0.01 for oral Acetaminophen
    2. Use may increase when generic for perioperative patients as well as for NPO patients as adjunctive to NSAIDs and Opioids

V. Updates: February 2022

  1. Pediatric Pneumonia (lung, id)
    1. Consider occult Pneumonia in fever >5 days, Leukocytosis or Abdominal Pain
    2. Abdominal Pain is the presenting complaint in 8.5% of patients, age 3 to 14 years old (esp age <5 years)
    3. Vomiting or Diarrhea is present in 27% of Pediatric Pneumonia cases
  2. Cardiac Syncope (cv, sx)
    1. Cardiac cause of Syncope is more likely in known cardiovascular disease (e.g. CAD, CHF, Atrial Fib), first episode after age 35 years
    2. Associated with no prodrome or prodromal Chest Pain or Shortness of Breath or Cyanosis
  3. Covid19 (lung, id)
    1. Nirmatrelvir/Ritonavir (Paxlovid, Pfizer) is FDA emergency authorized, oral Protease Inhibitor
    2. Indicated in high risk outpatients started within first 5 days
  4. Transient Global Amnesia (neuro, Amnesia)
    1. Transient inability to form new memories (Anterograde Amnesia) in episode lasting minutes to up to 24 hours
    2. One probable trigger is Valsalva Maneuver, which appears to cause transient MRI lesions in the Hippocampus
  5. Vitamin D Toxicity (pharm, Vitamin)
    1. Expanded on topic
  6. Subcutaneous Single Injection Digital Nerve Block (surgery, pharm)
    1. Another finger Anesthesia block technique
  7. Essential Tremor (neuro, Tremor)
    1. Topiramate is now a first-line agent in Essential Tremor
    2. Drug Induced Tremor causes was also updated
  8. Abdominal Trauma (er, gi)
    1. Bowel injury is rare (1-5%) in Blunt Abdominal Trauma, but easily missed when it does occur
    2. Bowel wall breaks and free air are seen in only a minority of bowel wall injuries
    3. Free fluid without solid organ injury is a red flag for intraabdominal injury
  9. Adult Intussusception (surgery, bowel)
    1. Rare in adults (<0.08% of cases) and associated with malignancy in 15 to 65% of cases
  10. Bacterial Endocarditis (cv, id)
    1. General Updates
  11. Aortic Stenosis (cv, valve)
    1. General Updates
  12. Septic Bursitis (ortho, id)
    1. Updates
  13. Agitated Delirium (psych, behavior)
    1. Updated differential of the febrile Agitated Delirium patient
  14. Staphylococcal Scalded Skin Syndrome (derm, id)
    1. Updates
  15. Cluster Headache (neuro, Headache)
    1. Extensive updates
  16. Adenomyosis (gyn, Uterus)
    1. Extensive updates
  17. Orthostatic Hypotension (cv, exam)
    1. Extensive updates
  18. Pruritus (derm, sx)
    1. Extensive updates
  19. Arterial Atherosclerosis (surgery, cv)
    1. Updated interventions for AAA, Carotid Stenosis, Renal Artery Stenosis and Peripheral Arterial Disease
  20. Positive Predictive Value (prevent, epi)
    1. Updated examples and links to calculator
  21. Inhalation Injury (er, environ, burn)
    1. General updates
  22. Venous Thromboembolism in Pregnancy (ob, hemeonc)
    1. Updates
  23. Provider Burnout (manage, psych)
    1. Organizational prevention strategies added
  24. PCSK9 Small Interfering RNA (cv, pharm)
    1. New Subcutaneous Injection for severe Hyperlipidemia
  25. Covid19 (lung, id)
    1. Updates related to Paxlovid
  26. Gastroesophageal Reflux (gi, esophagus)
    1. Updates on PPI discontinuation
  27. HIV PrEP (hiv, prevent)
    1. Updated options for management
  28. Fertility Tracking (gyn, Contraception)
    1. Updates regarding Urine LH kits
  29. Dual Antiplatelet Therapy (hemeonc, pharm)
    1. Status post coronary DES, use dual agents for 6 months, then Aspirin
    2. If high risk of bleeding (e.g. Gastrointestinal Bleeding), than use 3 months dual, 9 months Clopidogrel, then Aspirin daily

VI. Updates: January 2022

  1. Acute Aortic Occlusion (surgery, cv)
    1. Added
  2. Arrhythmia Following Myocardial Infarction (cv, ekg)
    1. Added
  3. Septic Arthritis (rheum, id)
    1. Extensive updates, including added Prosthetic Joint Infection
  4. Pediatric Vomiting (gi, peds)
    1. Extensive updates to Pediatric Vomiting and Vomiting Causes in Children
  5. Superior Mesenteric Artery Syndrome (surgery, gi)
    1. Added
  6. Hepatitis C (gi, id)
    1. Extensive Updates
  7. Cannabinoid (psych, cd)
    1. Extensive updates
  8. Pneumonia in Children (lung, peds)
    1. Updates
  9. Unprovoked Seizure in Children (neuro, Seizure)
    1. Added
  10. High Sensitivity Troponin (cv, lab)
    1. Added protocol for High Sensitivity Troponin I
  11. Thyroiditis (endo, Thyroid)
    1. Updates
  12. Color Blindness (eye, Vision)
    1. Added
  13. Covid19 Vaccine (id, immunize)
    1. Pfizer Covid19 Vaccine approved for ages 5-12 years. Updated dosing
  14. Covid19 (lung, id)
    1. Updated Venous Thromboembolism Prophylaxis in Covid19
  15. Prevnar (id, immunize)
    1. Prevnar 20 is available for adults, pending approval in children
  16. Dry Eyes (eye, sx)
    1. Intranasal Varenicline (Tyrvaya) is a approved intranasally at $600/month for modest effect on Dry Eyes
  17. Subcutaneous Injection (er, procedure)
    1. Updates
  18. Intramuscular Injection (er, procedure)
    1. Updates
  19. Seasonal Effective Disorder (psych, depression)
    1. Updates
  20. Eczematous Dermatitis (derm, dry)
    1. Opzelura (Ruxolitinib) is a a topical JAK Inhibitor approved for refractory mild to moderate Eczema
  21. Isotretinoin (derm, pharm)
    1. Updated
  22. Citalopram Overdose (psych, pharm)
    1. Updated Citalopram and SSRI ovderose
  23. Presbyopia (eye, Vision)
    1. Added topic as well as Vuity (Pilocarpine)
  24. Septic Joint (rheum, id)
    1. Updates
  25. Patella Dislocation (ortho, knee)
    1. Relocation updates
  26. Ulnar Nerve Block (surgery, pharm)
    1. Updates
  27. Aortoenteric Fistula (surgery, cv)
    1. Added
  28. Fallopian Tube Torsion (gyn, ovary)
    1. Rare, isolated tube torsion added
  29. Subarachnoid Hemorrhage (neuro, cv)
    1. Updates to diagnostic rules
  30. Tube Thoracostomy (lung, procedure)
    1. Updates
  31. Nutritional Support (pharm, nutrition)
    1. Reviewed Enteral Nutrition, parenteral nutrition
  32. Isoniazid Overdose (lung, pharm)
    1. Added
  33. Intravenous Angiotensin (cv, pharm)
    1. New agent for refractory Hypotension
  34. Patient Education (manage, general)
    1. Updated, including misinformation
  35. Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (urology, Prostate)
    1. Updated management
  36. Lybalvi (psych, pharm)
    1. Olanzapine/Samidorphan (Lybalvi) is released in 2021 at $1400/month
    2. Samidorphan is a Naltrexone derivative added to reduce weight gain that typically occurs with Olanzapine
    3. Marginal efficacy for cost (other strategies to reduce weight gain are preferred)
  37. Prostate Cancer Management (urology, hemeonc)
    1. Reviewed Prostate Cancer hormonal management
  38. Vaping (psych, cd)
    1. Updates
  39. Turmeric (pharm, alternative)
    1. Updates

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