II. Criteria: Tachypnea (WHO criteria)

  1. Newborn to 2 months: 60 breaths per minute
  2. Infant 2 months to 1 year: 50 breaths per minute
  3. Preschool Child 1 to 5 years: 40 breaths per minute
  4. School age Child: 20-30 breaths per minute
  5. Adults: 20 breaths per minute

III. Causes: Tachypnea

  1. See Dyspnea
  2. Physiologic and mechanical
    1. Fever
      1. Fever increases Respiratory Rate up to 10 breaths/min per degree celcius
    2. Exertion
    3. Pain
    4. Abdominal Distention
    5. Respiratory Muscle paralysis
    6. Obesity
    7. Anxiety or Panic Disorder (e.g. Panic Attack)
    8. Hypoglycemia
  3. Cardiovascular (decreased perfusion or oxygen carrying capacity)
    1. Congestive Heart Failure
    2. Anemia
    3. Hyperthyroidism
    4. Pulmonary Embolism
  4. Respiratory
    1. Pneumonia (or Pediatric Pneumonia)
    2. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
    3. Asthma
    4. Pneumothorax
    5. Hypoxemia or Hypercapnia
    6. Interstitial Lung Disease
    7. Pulmonary Edema
  5. Compensatory acid-base
    1. Metabolic Acidosis
    2. Sepsis (Lactic Acidosis as well as fever)
  6. Neurologic
    1. Brain mass
    2. Hepatic Encephalopathy
  7. Medications
    1. Salicylates
    2. Sympathomimetics (Amphetamines, Cocaine)
    3. Anticholinergics
    4. Cholinergics (variable effect)
    5. Hallucinogens (Ketamine, PCP)
    6. Cannabinoids (Marijuana, K2, Spice)

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