II. Causes: Auscultated and Audible Lung Sounds

  1. General
    1. Abnormal lung sounds may be most prominent in general at the mid-axillary line
  2. Absent breath sounds
    1. Foreign body or other complete airway obstruction
    2. Pneumothorax or Hemothorax
    3. Pneumonia
  3. Wheezing
    1. Lower airway obstruction
    2. Best auscultated at the upper anterior chest (lung apices)
  4. Stridor
    1. Upper airway obstruction
  5. Rales (inspiratory crackles)
    1. Fluid in the small airways and alvoeli
    2. Best auscultated at the posterior bases
  6. Rhonchi

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