II. Epidemiology

  1. Much less common than Pectus Excavatum
  2. More common in males by ratio of 4:1

III. Causes and associated conditions

IV. Pathophysiology

  1. Softened upper ribs bend forwards
  2. Progresses as child grows

V. Signs

  1. Opposite of Pectus Excavatum
  2. Narrow thorax with increased anteroposterior diameter
  3. Sternum protrudes from chest like keel of ship

VI. Complications

  1. Significant cosmetic concerns

VII. References

  1. Degowin (1987) Bedside Exam, Macmillan, p. 274
  2. Townsend (2001) Sabiston Surgery, p. 1169-70

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