II. Causes: Most common categories

  1. Coronary Artery Disease
    1. Accounts for 60-70% of patients with Systolic Dysfunction
  2. Hypertension
    1. Major cause of Diastolic Dysfunction
    2. High systolic Blood Pressure and high Pulse Pressure are strongly correlated with CHF risk
    3. Incidence
      1. Men: Hypertension Causes 39% of CHF cases
      2. Women: Hypertension Causes 59% of CHF cases
    4. Reference
      1. Chae (1999) JAMA 281(7):634-9 [PubMed]
      2. Grimm (1996) JAMA 275(20):1549-56 [PubMed]
      3. Haider (2003) Ann Intern Med 138(1):10-6 [PubMed]
  3. Valvular heart disease
    1. Primary Valvular disease
    2. Rheumatic Heart Disease
  4. Cardiomyopathy
    1. See specific Cardiomyopathy Causes below
    2. Diabetes Mellitus doubles the risk of Heart Failure

III. Causes: Cardiomyopathy

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