II. Definitions

  1. Chronic Dyspnea
    1. Subjective difficult or distressed breathing lasting >1 month

III. Epidemiology

  1. Reported by a third of patients over age 60-70 years old
    1. Confers an increased mortality risk (esp. COPD)

IV. Causes

VI. Exam

  1. See Dyspnea
  2. Pulse Oximetry (at rest and while walking)
  3. Six-Minute Walk Test

VII. Labs

X. Management

XI. Management: Refractory Dyspnea of unclear cause

  1. Consider cardiology evaluation for angiography
  2. Consider pulmonology for bronchoscopy and biopsy
  3. Consider esophageal pH and manometry testing

Images: Related links to external sites (from Bing)

Related Studies