II. Epidemiology

  1. Up to 20% of U.S. Adults use Tobacco products (Cigarettes, cigars, pipes)
  2. Up to 70% of Tobacco smokers want to quit but only 5% are successful
  3. More than half of adult smokers started before age 18 years

III. Preparation: Office based Smoking Cessation program

  1. Select an office Smoking Cessation coordinator
  2. Create a smoke free office
  3. Identify all smoking patients: "Do You Smoke"
  4. Review self-help materials with each smoker
  5. Make follow-up visits and call-backs
  6. Consider working with consulting pharmacists to dispense and counsel on Tobacco Cessation products
  7. Tobacco Cessation counseling is billable (CPT 99406 for >3 min and CPT 99407 for >10 min)

IV. Protocol: Interview in clinic

  1. "Do You smoke?"
    1. Label Chart "SMOKER" (or sticker)
    2. Make Smoking a Vital Sign
  2. How Much do you smoke?
    1. Greater nicotine dependence if >1 pack per day
  3. How soon after waking do you have first Cigarette?
    1. Greater nicotine dependence if under 30 minutes
  4. Have you tried to quit before?
    1. Successful cessation requires 3-6 attempts (average)
  5. Other assessment tools
    1. CAGE Questions can be applied to Tobacco Abuse
    2. Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence

V. Precautions: Myths regarding quitting smoking - Anxiety will increase

  1. Smokers (n=101) followed for 4 weeks
  2. No increase in anxiety
  3. Anxiety actually decreased after first week
  4. Reference
    1. West (1997) Am J Psych 154:1589-92 [PubMed]

VI. Management: General

  1. See Behavior Modification (Trans-theoretical Model, Five As Technique)
  2. Use similar methods and medications for E-Cigarette Cessation as for Tobacco Cessation
  3. Five As Technique Approach
    1. ASK about Tobacco use
    2. ADVISE patient quit Tobacco, directly and clearly
    3. ASSESS WILLINGNESS to quit Tobacco, prior attempts and current use
    4. ASSIST the patient in cessation with support, resources, medications, and expected initial adverse symptoms on quitting
    5. ARRANGE QUIT DATE and follow-up, and planned responses to difficult situations with risk of returning to Tobacco
  4. Provide Self-Help materials
    1. See resources below
    2. "Clearing the Air" (National Cancer Institute)
    3. Free NCI Materials: 1-800-4-CANCER
    4. Free telephone quit line: 800-QUIT-NOW
    5. SmokeFreeTxt: Text 'QUIT' to 47848
  5. Behavioral interventions are effective (with or without pharmacotherapy)
    1. Individual or group counseling
    2. Guaranteed financial incentives
    3. Text message-based counseling
    4. Hartmann-Boyce (2021) Cochrane Database Syst Rev (1):CD013229 [PubMed]
  6. Relapse is common in first 6-12 months after cessation
    1. Reassess interest in quitting after relapse
  7. Tobacco Cessation office-based billing
    1. Medicare covers up to 8 sessions per year
    2. Counseling for >3 minutes: CPT 99406
    3. Counseling for >10 minutes: CPT 99407
  8. Specific Populations
    1. Pregnancy
      1. See Preconception Counseling
    2. Adolescents
      1. See Adolescent Substance Misuse
    3. Comborbid Mental Health Disorders
      1. Consider Verenicline (high efficacy in this population)

VII. Management: Pharmacotherapy

  1. Indications for pharmacotherapy (Nicotine Dependence)
    1. Tobacco use at or exceeding 1 pack per day
    2. First Cigarette smoked within 30 minutes of waking
    3. History of withdrawal symptoms during prior quit attempt
  2. Nicotine Replacement therapy (NRT)
    1. Eight week course is sufficient with little added benefit to longer use
      1. Schnoll (2015) JAMA Intern Med 175(4): 504-11 [PubMed]
    2. Base dose on nicotine dependence
    3. See Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence
    4. Nicotine Patch
      1. Start at 21 mg patch for those with more than 10 Cigarettes per day (more than one half pack), and 14 mg patch if less
      2. Taper patch dose to off over 6-8 weeks
    5. Nicotine Gum
      1. Consider an occasional low dose gum (2 mg) as an adjunct to Nicotine Patch to treat breakthrough cravings
    6. Nicotine Nasal Spray
    7. Nicotine Inhaler
  3. Controller Medications (reduce the impulse to use Tobacco)
    1. Background
      1. Consider controller medications even in those reluctant to quit
      2. ATS recommends as of 2021 extending controller medications up to one year for higher sustained quit rate (NNT 19)
        1. Controller medications have been previously limited to 12 week course
        2. Leone (2020) Am J Respir Crit Care Med 202(2): e5-31 [PubMed]
    2. Bupropion (Zyban, Wellbutrin)
      1. Start XR 150 mg daily for 3 days, then 150 mg twice daily
      2. May also help avert the weight gain associated with Tobacco Cessation
    3. Varenicline (Chantix)
      1. Start 1 week before quit date, at 0.5 mg daily for 3 days, then 0.5 mg twice daily for 4 days, then 1 mg twice daily for 12 weeks
      2. ATS preferred agent for sustained Smoking Cessation at 6 months (NNT 7)
        1. Cahill (2016) Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2016(5):CD006103 +PMID: 27158893 [PubMed]
      3. More effective when combined with Nicotine Replacement
        1. Koegelenberg (2014) JAMA 312(2): 155-61 [PubMed]
    4. Nicotine Patch (see above)
    5. Other medications used historically
      1. Nortriptyline
        1. Titrate to serum level 50-150 ng/ml (~75 mg/day)
        2. As effective as Bupropion
        3. Da Costa (2002) Chest 122:403-8 [PubMed]
        4. Hall (2002) Arch Gen Psychiatry 59:930-6 [PubMed]
  4. Efficacy
    1. Smokers interested in quitting: 70%
    2. Smokers who quit without additional help: 7.9%
    3. Smokers who quit with only advice of physician: 10.2%
    4. Smokers who quit with Nicotine Replacement: 26%
    5. Smokers who quit with combined therapy below: 35%
      1. Behavioral support
      2. Bupropion
      3. Nicotine Replacement
  5. References
    1. Jorenby (1999) N Engl J Med 340:685-91 [PubMed]

VIII. Precautions: Major Depression

  1. Initial risk of Major Depression exacerbation
  2. Higher risk in first 6 months of Tobacco Cessation
  3. Confirm Major Depression control prior to cessation
  4. Consider Bupropion use for cessation
  5. Glassman (2001) Lancet 357:1929-32 [PubMed]

IX. Precautions: Medications with no proven efficacy in Tobacco Cessation (avoid)

  1. Silver acetate (gives Cigarettes bad taste)
  2. Alprazolam (Xanax) or other Benzodiazepine
  3. Clonidine (Catapres)

X. Precautions: Devices with increased risk or unknown safety

  1. Avoid Electronic Cigarette (E-Cigarette)
    1. Inadequate safety available for these devices and the inhaled vapor compared other Nicotine Replacement forms
    2. No good evidence that e-cigs assist patients in quitting nicotine completely (may simply trade one drug for another)
    3. More than half of e-cig users are dual users (use Tobacco also)
      1. Emphasize the need to completely quit Tobacco
  2. Avoid Hookah Pipe (Tobacco smoke drawn through water before inhalation)
    1. Water does not filter Tobacco-related toxins
    2. Hookah users tend to smoke for longer and have greater exposure
  3. References
    1. (2013) Presc Lett 20(5): 27
    2. Vardavas (2012) Chest 141(6):1400-6 [PubMed]
    3. Trtchounian (2011) Tob Control 20:47-52 [PubMed]

Images: Related links to external sites (from Bing)

Related Studies

Ontology: Cessation of smoking (C0085134)

Definition (MEDLINEPLUS)

Tobacco use is the most common preventable cause of death. About half of the people who don't quit smoking will die of smoking-related problems. Quitting smoking is important for your health.

Soon after you quit, your circulation begins to improve, and your blood pressure starts to return to normal. Your sense of smell and taste return, and it's easier for you to breathe. In the long term, giving up tobacco can help you live longer. Your risk of getting cancer decreases with each year you stay smoke-free.

Quitting is not easy. You may have short-term affects such as weight gain, irritability, and anxiety. Some people try several times before they succeed. There are many ways to quit smoking. Some people stop "cold turkey." Others benefit from step-by-step manuals, counseling, or medicines or products that help reduce nicotine addiction. Your health care provider can help you find the best way for you to quit.

NIH: National Cancer Institute

Definition (NCI) Discontinuation of the habit of smoking.
Definition (MSH) Discontinuation of the habit of smoking, the inhaling and exhaling of tobacco smoke.
Definition (PSY) Used for cigarette smoking rehabilitation programs or stopping the habit of smoking.
Definition (CSP) process of quitting smoking tobacco.
Concepts Individual Behavior (T055)
MSH D016540
SnomedCT 360907006
English Cessation, Smoking, Cessations, Smoking, Smoking Cessation, Smoking Cessations, Cessation of smoking, smoke cessation, smoking cessation, smoking cessations, Smoking cessation, Quitting Smoking, Cessation of smoking (life style)
French Désaccoutumance au tabac, Arrêt du tabac, Sevrage tabagique
Swedish Rökavvänjning
Finnish Tupakoinnin lopettaminen
Russian OTVYKANIE OT KURENIIA, KURENIIA PREKRASHCHENIE, КУРЕНИЯ ПРЕКРАЩЕНИЕ, ОТВЫКАНИЕ ОТ КУРЕНИЯ
Spanish Abandono del hábito de fumar, abandono del tabaquismo, abandono del tabaquismo (estilo de vida), Cese del Tabaquismo
Dutch stoppen met roken, Stoppen met roken
Italian Interruzione del fumo, Smettere di fumare
German Aufhoeren mit dem Rauchen, Einstellen des Rauchens
Portuguese Abandono do tabaco, Abandono do Fumo, Parar de Fumar, Interrupção do Hábito de Fumar, Abandono do Hábito de Fumar
Czech Zanechání kouření, odvykání kouření, kouření - odvyknutí
Japanese キンエン, 禁煙
Croatian PUŠENJE, PRESTANAK
Polish Zaprzestanie palenia, Zaprzestanie palenia papierosów, Zaprzestanie palenia tytoniu, Zaprzestanie palenia fajki
Hungarian Dohányzás elhagyása
Norwegian Tobakksavvenning, Røykeslutt, Røykeavvenning

Ontology: Tobacco Use Cessation (C0600549)

Definition (NCI) Discontinuation of the use of tobacco in any form.
Definition (MSH) Ending the TOBACCO habits of smoking, chewing, or snuff use.
Concepts Individual Behavior (T055)
MSH D020340
English Tobacco Use Cessation, Cessation, Tobacco, Tobacco Cessation, Cessation, Tobacco Use, Cessations, Tobacco Use, tobacco cessation, tobacco use prevention, cessation tobacco, cessation of cigarette smoking, cessation of tobacco use, cigarette smoking cessation, cigarette smoking prevention, prevention and cessation of cigarette smoking: control of tobacco use, prevention of cigarette smoking, prevention of tobacco use
Swedish Snusavvänjning
Czech tabák - odvyknutí užívání
Finnish Tupakkatuotteiden käytön lopettaminen
French Arrêt de la consommation de tabac, Arrêt de l'utilisation du tabac, Arrêt du tabagisme, Arrêt de l'usage de tabac, Arrêt du tabac
Russian TABAKA ZHEVANIIA PREKRASHCHENIE, TABAKA UPOTREBLENIIA PREKRASHCHENIE, TABAKA NIUKHANIIA PREKRASHCHENIE, ТАБАКА ЖЕВАНИЯ ПРЕКРАЩЕНИЕ, ТАБАКА НЮХАНИЯ ПРЕКРАЩЕНИЕ, ТАБАКА УПОТРЕБЛЕНИЯ ПРЕКРАЩЕНИЕ
Japanese タバコ使用中止, たばこ使用中止, 煙草使用中止, 無煙たばこ使用中止, 無煙タバコ使用中止, 無煙煙草使用中止
Croatian Not Translated[Tobacco Use Cessation]
Polish Zaprzestanie używania tytoniu
Italian Cessazione dell'uso del tabacco, Smettere l'uso del tabacco
Norwegian Opphør av tobakksbruk, Stopp i tobakksbruk
Portuguese Abandono do Tabagismo, Abandono do Uso de Fumo, Abandono do Uso de Tabaco
German Einstellen des Tabakgebrauchs
Dutch Stoppen met roken
Spanish Cese del Uso de Tabaco