II. Epidemiology

  1. Incidence of Use (data from 1980s)
    1. Alcohol use: 80-88% of college athletes
    2. Marijuana use: 20-36% of college athletes
    3. Cocaine use: 17% of college athletes
    4. Amphetamine use: 8% of college athletes
    5. Anabolic Steroid use: 2-6% of college athletes
  2. References
    1. Big Ten Study (1981)
    2. NCAA Study (1985)

III. Labs: Drug Testing Methods

  1. General
    1. Effectively deters use when combined with education
    2. Policy varies between NBA, NFL, and NCAA
      1. NBA
        1. Doctor must report players drug use to NBA
        2. NBA tests rookies and players under suspicion
      2. NFL tests frequently and randomly
  2. Gas Chromatography
    1. Gold standard test but very expensive
    2. Used in playoffs and high level events
  3. Radioimmunoassay (RIA)
    1. Lower cost test but higher rate of False Positives
    2. Used to test high school athletes
  4. Epitestosterone to Testosterone Ratio
    1. Assesses for Growth Hormone or Anabolic Steroid use
  5. Methods players use to counter drug testing
    1. Probenecid blocks urine excretion of drugs
    2. False urine sample
      1. Player instills another's urine into their Bladder
    3. Diuretics dilute sample
    4. Bleach added to urine invalidate tests

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