II. Evaluation

  1. Avoid diagnostic testing (including endoscopy) in pregnancy
  2. Gastoesophageal reflux is among the most common causes of Dyspepsia in Pregnancy

III. Management: First Line Agents

  1. See Helicobacter Pylori
  2. General Measures
    1. See Gastroesophageal Reflux
    2. See Gastritis
    3. Drink 8 glasses (8 ounces) non-caffeinated fluid daily
    4. Decrease provocative foods
      1. Decrease or eliminate Caffeine, Chocolate, spicy foods
      2. Avoid milk products toward end of day
      3. Avoid fatty foods
    5. Tobacco Cessation
    6. No eating food 2-3 hours before bedtime
    7. Elevate head of bed to 30 degrees
  3. First: Antacids (may interfere with iron absorption)
    1. Avoid Antacids that contain Salicylates, or Sodium Bicarbonate (alka-seltzer, due to alkalosis)
      1. Risk of Fluid Overload, Metabolic Alkalosis
    2. Calcium Carbonate (Tums)
    3. Aluminum hydroxide - Magnesium Hydroxide (Maalox)
  4. Next: Gastric mucosa protection or skip to H2 Blocker
    1. Sucralfate 1 gram orally three times daily (not effective in GERD)
  5. Next: H2 Blocking Agents (Avoid Axid or Nizatidine)
    1. Ranitidine (Zantac) 150 mg orally twice daily
      1. Preferred H2 Blocker in pregnancy
    2. Cimetidine (Tagamet) 400 mg orally twice daily or at bedtime
    3. Famotidine (Pepcid)

IV. Management: Refractory cases

  1. Metoclopramide (Reglan)
  2. Avoid Proton Pump Inhibitors (e.g. Prilosec) unless approved by a primary maternity care provider
    1. Class C Medication
    2. Unknown longterm safety
      1. However Omeprazole is considered likely safe
    3. Low quality study showed possible congenital malformation risk with PPI
      1. Li (2020) Aliment Pharmacol Ther 51(4): 410-20 [PubMed]

Images: Related links to external sites (from Bing)

Related Studies