II. Epidemiology: Smoke exposure related U.S. Deaths/Year

  1. Lung Cancer 3,000 deaths/year
  2. Ischemic Heart Disease 62,000 deaths/year
  3. Pulmonary disease 300,000 cases and 212 deaths/year
  4. SIDS (Crib Death): 2700 deaths/year
  5. Pediatric Meningococcus infection (maternal smoking)
    1. Fischer (1997) Pediatr Infect Dis J 16:979-83 [PubMed]

III. Pathophysiology

  1. Smoke exposure increases inflammatory markers
    1. Pantagiotakos (2004) Am J Med 116:145-50 [PubMed]

IV. U.S. States with highest rates of Tobacco Abuse

  1. Kentucky (31%)
  2. Nevada (29%)
  3. Missouri (27%)
  4. Indiana (27%)
  5. Ohio (26%)
  6. West Virginia (26%)
  7. North Carolina (26%)
  8. Tennessee (26%)
  9. New Hampshire (25%)
  10. Alabama (25%)
  11. Arkansas (25%)
  12. Alaska (25%)

V. U.S. States with lowest rates of smoking

  1. Utah (13%)
  2. Puerto Rico (13%)
  3. California (17%)
  4. Arizona (19%)
  5. Montana (19%)
  6. Hawaii (20%)
  7. Minnesota (20%)
  8. Connecticut (20%)
  9. Massachusetts (20%)
  10. Colorado (20%)
  11. Maryland (20%)
  12. Washington (21%)

VI. Prevention of second hand smoke

  1. Limit smoking in public places
  2. Strong support for smoking bans
    1. Both smokers and nonsmokers agree with bans
    2. Locations achieving strong supported for bans
      1. Schools and day care centers (universal support)
      2. Indoor work areas
      3. Restaurants

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Related Studies

Ontology: Environmental Tobacco Smoke (C0813971)

Definition (MEDLINEPLUS)

Secondhand smoke is a mixture of the smoke that comes from the burning end of a cigarette, cigar, or pipe, and the smoke breathed out by the smoker. It contains more than 7,000 chemicals. Hundreds of those chemicals are toxic and about 70 can cause cancer.

Health effects of secondhand smoke include

  • Ear infections in children
  • More frequent and severe asthma attacks in children
  • Heart disease and lung cancer in adults who have never smoked

There is no safe amount of secondhand smoke. Even low levels of it can be harmful. The only way to fully protect nonsmokers from secondhand smoke is not to allow smoking indoors.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

Definition (NCI_NCI-GLOSS) Smoke that comes from the burning of a tobacco product and smoke that is exhaled by smokers. Inhaling secondhand smoke is called involuntary or passive smoking.
Definition (NCI) Smoke that is emitted from burning tobacco, including cigarette, pipe and cigar, and from tobacco smoke exhaled by smokers. Environmental tobacco smoke consists of a huge variety of chemicals that are produced during the burning of tobacco. Among them are known or suspected toxicants, carcinogens and respiratory irritants, including nicotine, ammonia, formaldehyde, sulfur dioxide, acrolein, hydrogen cyanide, phenol, nitrogen oxide, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, N-Nitrosamines and radionuclides. Environmental tobacco smoke has numerous adverse health effects, is mutagenic and is a known human carcinogen that is associated with an increased risk of developing lung cancer. (NCI05)
Concepts Hazardous or Poisonous Substance (T131)
English second hand smoke, environmental tobacco smoke, secondhand smoking, second hand smoking, secondhand smoke, secondhand smokes, environmental smoke tobacco, Environmental tobacco smoke, Secondhand Smoke, ETS, Second Hand Smoke, Environmental Tobacco Smoke