II. Causes: Drug or toxin use

  1. Nicotine or Tobacco use or Passive Smoke Exposure
  2. Alcohol Abuse
  3. Anabolic Steroids
  4. Antiandrogens
  5. Cocaine
  6. Marijuana use
  7. Opioids
  8. Toxin exposure
    1. Heavy metal exposure
    2. Organic solvents and Pesticides
    3. Radiation exposure
    4. Alkylating Agents

IV. Causes: Possible Effects (need further study)

  1. Ibuprofen
    1. May decrease sex hormones
    2. However has not been shown to cause inferility, lower testosterone or decreased Sperm Count
    3. Kristensen Proc (2018) Natl Acad Sci U S A 115(4):E715-E724 +PMID: 29311296 [PubMed]

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