II. Technique: Sample Collection

  1. Man avoids masturbation and intercourse for 48-72 hours
  2. Sample delivered within 2 hours of ejaculation
    1. Keep sample cool in refrigerator
    2. Some labs require sample within 45 minutes
  3. Repeat abnormal samples in 2-3 months at special lab
    1. Three month interval between tests reflects a >2 month sperm generation time

III. Labs: Normal Samples (Reference Ranges)

  1. Volume: >1.5 to 2 ml or higher
  2. pH: 7.2 or higher
  3. Sperm concentration: >15-20 million per ml
  4. Total sperm number: >40 mIllion per ejaculate
  5. Initial Sperm Motility >50%
  6. Total Sperm Motility: >40%
  7. Progressive motility (forward movement): >32%
  8. Normal Sperm Morphology: >4-14% strictly normal
  9. Vitality: 58%
  10. White Blood Cells <1 Million per ml

IV. Interpretation: Definitions

  1. Oligospermia
    1. Sperm Count <15 million per ml
    2. Suggests Hypogonadism (see Male Infertility for evaluation)
  2. Asthenozoospermia
    1. Sperm Motility in <40%
  3. Teratozoospermia
    1. Normal morphology <4%
  4. Oligoasthenoteratozoospermia Syndrome (OAT Syndrome)
    1. All three abnormalities (Oligospermia, Asthenozoospermia and Teratozoospermia) are present
    2. Suggests genetic etiology for Infertility

V. Interpretation: Findings predictive of fertility

  1. Sperm Count (concentration): >48 million per ml
  2. Initial Sperm Motility: >63%
  3. Normal Sperm Morphology: >12%

VI. Interpretation: Findings suggestive of Infertility

  1. Sperm Count (concentration): <13.5 million per ml
  2. Initial Sperm Motility: <32%
  3. Normal Sperm Morphology: <9%

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Related Studies

Ontology: Oligospermia (C0028960)

Definition (NCI) Decreased number of spermatozoa in the semen.
Definition (NCI_CTCAE) A disorder characterized by a decrease in the number of spermatozoa in the semen.
Definition (MSH) A condition of suboptimal concentration of SPERMATOZOA in the ejaculated SEMEN to ensure successful FERTILIZATION of an OVUM. In humans, oligospermia is defined as a sperm count below 20 million per milliliter semen.
Concepts Disease or Syndrome (T047)
MSH D009845
ICD9 606.1
ICD10 N46.11 , N46.1
English Oligospermia, OLIGOSPERMIA, Oligozoospermia, Count, Low Sperm, Counts, Low Sperm, Low Sperm Counts, Low Sperm Count, Sperm Count, Low, Sperm Counts, Low, HYPOSPERMATOGENESIS, Oligospermia NOS, Oligospermia [Disease/Finding], oligospermia, oligozoospermia, Hypospermatogenesis, hypospermatogenesis
French OLIGOSPERMIE, Oligozoospermie, Oligospermie
Portuguese OLIGOSPERMIA, Contagem Baixa de Espermatozoides, Baixa Contagem de Espermatozoides, Contagem de Espermatozoides Baixa, Oligozoospermia, Oligospermia
Spanish OLIGOSPERMIA, Recuento Bajo de Espermatozoides, Bajo Recuento de Espermatozoides, Oligoespermia, Oligozoospermia, Oligospermia
German OLIGOSPERMIE, Oligozoospermie, Oligospermie
Swedish Oligospermi
Czech oligospermie, Oligospermie, Oligozoospermie
Finnish Oligotsoospermia
Japanese 精子欠乏症, 乏精子, 精液減少症, 精子過少, 精子過少症, 精子減少, 精子減少症, 精液減少, 乏精子症, 精液過少, 精液過少症, セイシゲンショウショウ
Italian Oligozoospermia, Bassa conta spermatica, Oligospermia
Polish Oligospermia, Zmniejszenie liczby plemników
Norwegian Oligospermi
Dutch oligospermie, oligozoöspermie, Oligospermie
Hungarian Oligozoospermia, Oligospermia

Ontology: Sperm Count Procedure (C0037842)

Definition (MSH) A count of SPERM in the ejaculum, expressed as number per milliliter.
Concepts Laboratory Procedure (T059)
MSH D013076
SnomedCT 89857002, 302792004
CPT 89310, 89320, 89322, 89300
English Count, Sperm, Counts, Sperm, Sperm Count, Sperm Counts, sperm count, semen analysis sperm count (lab test), semen analysis sperm count, Sperm Count Procedure, Test;sperm count, sperm count test, Sperm count, Sperm number, Semen analysis, count only, Semen analysis, count only (procedure), Sperm count (procedure), sperm counts
Swedish Spermieantal
Finnish Siittiömäärä
French Numération des spermatozoïdes, Taux de spermatozoïdes
Spanish análisis de esperma, solo recuento (procedimiento), análisis de semen, recuento solamente (procedimiento), análisis de semen, recuento solamente, análisis de esperma, solo recuento, Recuento de espermatozoides, número de espermatozoides, recuento de espermatozoides (procedimiento), recuento de espermatozoides, Recuento de Espermatozoides
Polish Liczba plemników
Portuguese Número de espermatozóides, Contagem de Espermatozoides, Espermograma
Italian Conta spermatica, Conta degli spermatozoi
German Spermienzahl, Spermienzählung
Dutch spermatelling, Spermatocytentelling, Telling, spermatocyten-
Czech Počet spermií, počet spermií, spermie - počet
Japanese セイシスウ, 精子数
Hungarian Spermium szám
Croatian Spermiji, broj
Norwegian Spermietelling, Sædcelletelling, Telling av sædceller

Ontology: Sperm Motility (C0037848)

Definition (MSH) Movement characteristics of SPERMATOZOA in a fresh specimen. It is measured as the percentage of sperms that are moving, and as the percentage of sperms with productive flagellar motion such as rapid, linear, and forward progression.
Definition (CSP) ability of the sperm to move by flagellate swimming.
Definition (GO) Any process involved in the controlled movement of a sperm cell. [GOC:jl]
Concepts Cell Function (T043)
MSH D013081
SnomedCT 270027006, 145011008, 102869007
English Motilities, Sperm, Motility, Sperm, Sperm Motilities, sperm movement, sperm mobility, sperm motility, motility sperm, Sperm Motility, Sperm motility, Motility of spermatozoa, Spermatozoa motility, Motility of spermatozoa (observable entity), Motility of spermatozoa (function), Motility of spermatozoa, function (observable entity)
Swedish Spermierörlighet
Finnish Siittiön liikkuvuus
French Motilité des spermatozoïdes, Mobilité des spermatozoïdes
Polish Ruchliwość plemników
Czech spermie - motilita, pohyblivost spermií, motilita spermií
Croatian Spermiji, pokretljivost
Norwegian Spermiemotilitet, Bevegeligheten til spermiene, Spermamotilitet
Spanish motilidad de los espermatozoides (entidad observable), motilidad de los espermatozoides (función), motilidad de los espermatozoides, Motilidad Espermática
German Spermienmotilität
Dutch Motiliteit, sperma-, Spermamotiliteit
Portuguese Motilidade Espermática
Italian Mobilità dello spermatozoo

Ontology: Semen analysis procedure (C0202533)

Definition (MSH) The quality of SEMEN, an indicator of male fertility, can be determined by semen volume, pH, sperm concentration (SPERM COUNT), total sperm number, sperm viability, sperm vigor (SPERM MOTILITY), normal sperm morphology, ACROSOME integrity, and the concentration of WHITE BLOOD CELLS.
Concepts Laboratory Procedure (T059)
MSH D055101
SnomedCT 144986003, 11900001
CPT 89320, 89300, 89310, 89321, 89322, 1012549
LNC LP32565-1
English semen analysis (lab test), semen analysis, Semen Analysis, Semen Analyses, Semen Quality Analysis, Semen Quality Analyses, Quality Analyses, Semen, Analyses, Semen Quality, Analysis, Semen Quality, Semen analysis procedure, semen examination, analysis semen, Semen analysis, SA - Semen analysis, Semen analysis (procedure), Semen analysis, NOS
Spanish Análisis de Semen, Análisis de semen, Calidad Seminal, Análisis Seminal, análisis de esperma (procedimiento), análisis de esperma
French Analyse du sperme, Spermogramme, Analyse qualitative du sperme, Analyse du liquide séminal, Analyse de la qualité du sperme
Italian Analisi del seme, Analisi della qualità seminale, Analisi del liquido seminale
Dutch sperma analyse
German Samenanalyse, Analyse der Spermienqualität, Spermienanalyse
Portuguese Análise do esperma, Análise do Sêmen, Qualidade Seminal, Análise Seminal
Czech Analýza spermatu, analýza spermatu, semeno - analýza
Japanese セイエキケンサ, 精液検査
Swedish Semenanalys
Polish Badanie jakości nasienia, Badanie nasienia, Analiza nasienia
Hungarian Ondó kiértékelés
Croatian Not Translated[Semen Analysis]
Norwegian Sædkvalitetsanalyse, Sædanalyse, Analyse av sædkvalitet

Ontology: Asthenozoospermia (C0403823)

Definition (MSH) A condition in which the percentage of progressively motile sperm is abnormally low. In men, it is defined as <25% rapid motility or <50% progression in a semen sample (World Health Organization, 1992).
Concepts Finding (T033)
MSH D053627
SnomedCT 24463005
Portuguese Astenozoospermia, Astenospermia
Spanish Astenozoospermia, Astenoszoospermia, Astenospermia, astenospermia (hallazgo), astenospermia
Italian Astenozoospermia, Astenospermia
German Asthenospermie, Asthenozoospermie
French Asthénozoospermie, Asthénospermie
English Asthenospermia, Asthenozoospermia [Disease/Finding], asthenozoospermia, asthenospermia, Decreased sperm motility, Asthenozoospermia, Asthenozoospermia (finding)
Dutch asthenozoöspermie, astenospermie
Japanese セイシムリョクショウ, 精子無力症
Czech astenozoospermie, Astenozoospermie, Astenospermie
Finnish Astenotsoospermia
Swedish Astenozoospermi
Polish Astenozoospermia
Hungarian Asthenospermia, asthenozoospermia
Norwegian Asthenospermi

Ontology: Teratozoospermia (C0403824)

Concepts Finding (T033)
SnomedCT 236817003
Spanish teratozoospermia (hallazgo), teratozoospermia, teratozoospermia (trastorno)
English teratozoospermia, Teratozoospermia, Teratozoospermia (disorder), Teratozoospermia (finding)

Ontology: Sperm morphology (C0428011)

Concepts Clinical Attribute (T201)
SnomedCT 167797007, 145024008, 270028001, 145018002, 250500000
Italian Morfologia degli spermatozoi
English Sperm morphology NOS, Sperm morphology, Spermatozoa morphology, morphology sperm, sperm morphology, Sperm morphology NOS (observable entity), Sperm morphology (observable entity)
Japanese 精子形態, セイシケイタイ
Czech Morfologie spermatozoí
Hungarian Spermatozoon morfológia
Spanish morfología de los espermatozoides, SAI (entidad observable), Sperm morphology NOS, morfología de los espermatozoides, SAI, morfología espermática, SAI, morfología de los espermatozoides (entidad observable), morfología de los espermatozoides, morfología espermática, Morfología de los espermatozoides
Portuguese Morfologia dos espermatozóides
Dutch spermatozoa morfologie
French Morphologie des spermatozoïdes
German Spermatozoenmorphologie

Ontology: Sperm examination (C0430988)

Concepts Laboratory Procedure (T059)
SnomedCT 252928006
Italian Analisi dello sperma
Japanese 精子検査, セイシケンサ
English Sperm analysis, sperm analysis, Sperm examination, Sperm examination (procedure)
Czech Spermiogram
Hungarian Spermium elemzés
Spanish examen de esperma, examen de los espermatozoides (procedimiento), examen de los espermatozoides, Espermiograma
Portuguese Análise de espermazóides
Dutch sperma-analyse
French Analyse du sperme
German Spermienanalyse