II. Definitions

  1. Renal Threshold for Glucose (RTg)
    1. RTg is the Serum Glucose level above which Glucose spills into the urine and is not reabsorbed
    2. Glucose reabsorption is mediated by Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter 2 (SGLT-2) at the proximal tubule
    3. Above the RTg, SGLT-2 is overwhelmed and cannot absorb additional Glucose
    4. RTg >170 to 200 mg/dl (typically listed as 180 mg/dl) in non-diabetic patients
    5. RTg >200 to 250 mg/dl in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
    6. Osaki (2016) J Diabetes Investig 7(5):751-4 +PMID: 27181936 [PubMed]

III. Causes: Hyperglycemia Causes of Glucose in urine

IV. Causes: Renal Causes of Glucose in the urine

  1. Signs suggestive of Renal Tubular disease
    1. Serum Glucose <180 mg/dl
    2. Glucose Tolerance Tests are normal
    3. Ketosis absent
  2. Specific Causes
    1. Fanconi Syndrome
      1. Glycosuria despite a normal Serum Glucose
      2. Associated with multiple Electrolyte abnormalities
    2. Pregnancy
    3. SGLT2 Inhibitor (Sodium-Glucose Co-Transporter-2 Inhibitor)
    4. Toxic renal tubular disease
      1. Lead Toxicity
      2. Mercury Toxicity
      3. Degraded Tetracycline
    5. Inflammatory renal disease
      1. Acute Glomerulonephritis
      2. Nephrosis
    6. Increased GFR without tubular damage

V. Causes: False PositiveGlucose on Urinalysis

VI. Causes: False NegativeGlucose on Urinalysis

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Related Studies

Ontology: Glucose measurement, urine (C0004076)

Concepts Laboratory Procedure (T059)
SnomedCT 171246008, 148461007, 144496002, 144506006, 308745007, 167270004, 167259006, 30994003, 69376001
English urine glucose, Glucose measurement, urine, Urine glucose test NOS, urine glucose measurement (lab test), urine glucose measurement, Glucose urine, Urine glucose, urine glucose test, urine test glucose, glucose testing urine, glucose urine test, urine test for glucose, glucose urine, glucose test urine, glucose tests urine, Urine screen for sugar (& [glucose]) (procedure), Sugar - urine test (& glucose), Urine glucose test NOS (procedure), Sugar - urine test (& glucose) (procedure), Urine test for glucose (procedure), Urine screen for sugar (& [glucose]), Glucose - urine test, Sugar - urine test, Urine Glucose Test, Glucose measurement, urine (procedure), Urine test for glucose
Italian Glucosio urinario, Glucosio nelle urine
Dutch urine glucose, glucose urine
Portuguese Glicose na urina, Glucose na urina
Japanese 尿中ブドウ糖, ニョウチュウブドウトウ
Czech Glukóza v moči
Hungarian Glükóz vizeletben, Vizelet glükóz
Spanish prueba de glucosuria - SAI, Urine glucose test NOS, prueba para detección de glucosuria, prueba para detección de glucosuria (procedimiento), prueba de glucosuria - SAI (procedimiento), medición de glucosa en orina (procedimiento), medición de glucosa en orina, Glucosa en orina
French Glucose urinaire
German Glukose im Urin

Ontology: Glycosuria (C0017979)

Definition (CSP) presence of glucose in the urine, especially the excretion of an abnormally large amount of sugar (glucose) in the urine.
Definition (MSH) The appearance of an abnormally large amount of GLUCOSE in the urine, such as more than 500 mg/day in adults. It can be due to HYPERGLYCEMIA or genetic defects in renal reabsorption (RENAL GLYCOSURIA).
Concepts Finding (T033)
MSH D006029
ICD9 791.5
ICD10 R81
SnomedCT 207320006, 144504009, 167268008, 158574007, 167519007, 45154002
English Glycosuria, GLYCOSURIA, SUGAR URINARY, [D]Glycosuria, [D]Glycosuria (context-dependent category), Urine glucose, glycosuria (diagnosis), glycosuria, Urine sugar positive, Sugar urinary present, Sugar urinary, Sugar in urine, Glycosuria [Disease/Finding], sugar urine, urine glucose, glucosuria, sugars urine, urinary sugar, sugar in urine, sugar urinary, urine sugar, Glucose urine present, [D]Glycosuria (situation), Sugars in urine, Glucosuria, Glycosuria (finding), sugar; urine, urine; sugar
French GLYCOSURIE, Glucose présent dans l'urine, Sucre urinaire positif, Sucre dans les urines, Sucre urinaire, PRESENCE DE SUCRE DANS LES URINES, Glucosurie, Présence de glucose dans l'urine, Glycosurie
Portuguese GLICOSURIA, Açúcar presente na urina, Açúcar urinário, Açúcar na urina positivo, Açúcar na urina, PRESENCA DE ACUCAR NA URINA, Glucosúria, Presença de glucose na urina, Glicosúria
Spanish GLUCOSURIA, Azucar en orina, Presencia de azucar en orina, Azúcar en orina positivo, [D]glucosuria (categoría dependiente del contexto), AZUCAR EN ORINA, [D]glucosuria, [D]glucosuria (situación), glucosuria (hallazgo), glucosuria, Presencia de glucosuria, Glucosuria
German GLYKOSURIE, Zucher im Urin nachweisbar, Urinzucker positiv, Zucker im Urin, Zucher im Urin, GLUKOSURIE, Glucosurie, Glukose im Urin nachweisbar, Glukosurie, Glykosurie
Dutch suiker urinair, urine suiker positief, suiker in urine, suiker urinair aanwezig, glycosurie, suiker; urine, urine; suiker, glucose urine aanwezig, glucosurie, Glucosurie, Glycosurie
Japanese 尿糖, 糖尿, 尿糖陽性, 尿中ブドウ糖陽性, トウニョウ, ニョウチュウブドウトウヨウセイ, ニョウトウ, ニョウトウヨウセイ
Swedish Socker i urin
Czech glykosurie, Cukr v moči, Glykosurie, Cukr v moči pozitivní, Glukóza v moči přítomná, Cukr v moči přítomný, Glukosurie
Finnish Glukosuria
Korean 당뇨
Italian Glucosio urinario presente, Zuccheri nell'urina, Zuccheri urinari positivo, Zuccheri nelle urine, Zuccheri urinari presenti, Glicosuria
Polish Cukromocz, Glikozuria
Hungarian glycosuria, Cukor vizeletben, Cukor vizeletben kimutatható, Glükozuria, Glükóz vizeletben kimutatható, Cukor vizelet, Vizelet cukor pozitív
Norwegian Glykosuri, Glukosuri

Ontology: Urine dipstick for glucose (C0430376)

Concepts Laboratory Procedure (T059)
SnomedCT 167269000, 144505005, 269879003
English Urine dipstick for glucose, Urine dipstick for glucose (procedure)
Spanish determinación de glucosuria con tira reactiva (procedimiento), determinación de glucosuria con tira reactiva