II. Types

  1. Calcium oxalate crystals (square envelope shape)
  2. Triple phosphate crystals (coffin lid shape)
    1. Associated with increased Urine pH (alkaline)
    2. Associated with Proteus Urinary Tract Infection
  3. Uric Acid crystals (diamond shape)
  4. Cystine crystals (hexagonal shape)

III. Causes: Birefringent Crystals on Polarized Microscopy

  1. Monohydrated Calcium oxalate
  2. Uric Acid
  3. Triple Phosphate

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