II. Interpretation

  1. Normal pH: 4.5-8.0 (usually 5.5 to 6.5)

III. Background

  1. Urine pH reflects serum pH except with Renal Tubular Acidosis (RTA)
  2. In Renal Tubular Acidosis (RTA), Urine pH >5.5
    1. Urine cannot be acidified despite acid load

IV. Causes: Increased Urine pH (Alkalotic urine)

  1. Stale sample with high ammonia content (Very high pH)
    1. Void testing if old sample
  2. Bacteriuria or Urinary Tract Infection
    1. Reflects urea splitting organisms (urease positive Bacteria such as Proteus species)
    2. Associated with Magnesium-ammonium phosphate crystals
  3. Urolithiasis
    1. Calcium Phosphate Calculi
    2. Struvite Calculi (infected stones, Magnesium-ammonium phosphate stones)
  4. Vegetarian Diet
  5. High citrate diet
  6. Renal Failure
  7. Renal Tubular Acidosis (Type 1)
  8. Drugs
    1. Antibiotics
    2. Bicarbonate (e.g. Excessive Antacid Use)
    3. Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitor (e.g. Acetazolamide)
    4. Potassium Citrate
    5. Sodium Citrate

V. Causes: Decreased Urine pH (Acidic urine)

  1. Acidosis (Acidemia)
  2. Diabetic Ketoacidosis
  3. Starvation Ketosis
  4. Diarrhea
  5. Urolithiasis
    1. Uric Acid Calculi
    2. Cysteine Calculi
    3. Calcium Oxalate Calculi
  6. Acidic fruits (Cranberry)
  7. High Protein diet
  8. Drugs
    1. Ammonium chloride
    2. Methenamine

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Related Studies

Ontology: Urine pH measurement (C0042044)

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SnomedCT 167315000, 144552004, 144542003, 167305006
English urine pH, Urine pH NOS, Urine pH measurement, Urine pH, pH urine, ph urine test, urine ph test, ph urine, urine ph, Urine pH NOS (procedure), Urine pH NOS (observable entity), Urine pH Measurement, Urine pH test, Urine pH test (procedure)
Italian pH urinario
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French pH des urines, pH urinaire
Portuguese pH urinário, pH da urina
Japanese 尿pH, ニョウpH
Czech pH moči
Hungarian Vizelet pH
Spanish determinación del pH urinario, SAI, determinación del pH urinario, SAI (entidad observable), Urine pH NOS, determinación del pH urinario, SAI (procedimiento), prueba de pH urinario (procedimiento), prueba de pH urinario, pH urinario
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Ontology: Urine dipstick for pH (C0430382)

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SnomedCT 167314001, 144551006, 271348005
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