II. Pathophysiology

  1. Anticholinergic Medications
    1. Block parasympathetic Muscarinic Receptors in detrusor Muscle with impaired contractility
  2. Alpha-Adrenergic Agonists (e.g. Decongestants)
    1. Increases Prostate and Bladder neck
  3. Calcium Channel Blockers
    1. Decreased bladder Smooth Muscle contractility
  4. NSAIDs
    1. Inhibits Prostaglandin synthesis and secondary decreased detrusor contractility (theoretical)

III. Causes: Common (esp. Anticholinergics)

VII. Causes: Herbals and other over-the-counter products

  1. Ephedra or Ma Huang
  2. Country Mallow
  3. Heartleaf
  4. Bitter Orange

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