II. Epidemiology

  1. Cancer Prevalence in U.S.: 14.5 Million (2017)

III. Prevention: Lifestyle

  1. Modify habits
    1. Tobacco Cessation (most important risk factor in Cancer Prevention)
    2. Limit Alcohol to 1 drink per day for women and 2 drinks per day for men
  2. Maintain a healthy weight
    1. Obesity is related to Breast Cancer, Colon Cancer, Endometrial Cancer, Renal Cancer
  3. Exercise regularly
    1. Exercise for at least 30 minutes/day for 5-7 days weekly, at moderate to strenuous pace
    2. Reduces Breast Cancer and Colon Cancer risk
  4. Eat a Healthy Diet
    1. Plant-based diets are best (maintain 5 or more vegetables and fruits daily)
    2. Select whole grain foods over refined grains
    3. Limit red meat and processed meat intake
    4. Avoid saturated fats

IV. Prevention: Myths (Exposures that do not cause cancer)

  1. Exposure to power lines does not increase cancer risk
    1. Finnish study of n=8415 cancer cases near power lines
    2. Compared with cancer Incidence over all of Finland
    3. No difference found
    4. References
      1. Verkasalo (1996) BMJ 313:1047-51 [PubMed]
  2. Exposure to Cell Phones
    1. Does not appear related to Brain Tumor risk
    2. Long latency period however may require longer studies
    3. Retrospective study
      1. Brain Tumor patients (782) compared with 799 controls
      2. Inpatients from across U.S. surveyed 1994 to 1998
      3. No increased risk of Brain Tumor identified
    4. References
      1. Inskip (2001) N Engl J Med 344:79-86 [PubMed]

V. Prevention: Cancer Screening

  1. See Melanoma Prevention
  2. See Breast Cancer Screening
  3. See Cervical Cancer Screening
  4. See Colorectal Cancer Screening
  5. See Lung Cancer Screening CT Chest
  6. See Prostate Cancer Screening
  7. See Cancer Survivor Care
  8. Galleri Test
    1. Multicancer early detection tool screens for more than 50 cancers
    2. Consider in asymptomatic adults at higher cancer risk, including over age 50 years old
    3. Positive tests require confirmation with standard specific cancer detection protocols
      1. Risk of anxiety, possible False Positives and no established protocols in how Galleri Test fits into evaluation
    4. Cost approaches $1000 and not typically covered by insurance
    5. Pyzocha (2022) Am Fam Physician 106(4): 459-60 [PubMed]

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