II. Epidemiology

  1. Common occurrence in light-skinned, red-haired patients
  2. Onset in childhood, after Sun Exposure

III. Signs

  1. Characteristics
    1. Light, tan or brown Macules, each 1-2 mm with sharp demarcation
    2. Darkens with Sun Exposure
    3. Vary in number from a few to hundreds of Freckles
  2. Distribution
    1. Face and nose more commonly affected
    2. Neck, chest, arms, legs are also affected

IV. Differential Diagnosis

  1. Lentigo (juvenile Lentigines onset in childhood, or Solar Lentigines in older adults)
    1. Lentigo does not darken on sunlight exposure

V. Management

  1. Skin Cancer Prevention
    1. Sun avoidance
    2. Sunscreen
    3. Frequent skin exam
  2. Cosmetic removal
    1. Typically not needed (lesions are asymptomatic and fade in winter)
    2. Same treatments used in Lentigo may be employed for Freckles
      1. Light Cryotherapy
      2. Hydroquinone
      3. Azelaic Acid
      4. Laser therapy

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Ontology: Freckles (C0016689)

Concepts Finding (T033)
MSH D008548
ICD10 L81.2
SnomedCT 267870007, 201287003, 156438005, 699225003, 403536009, 72298008
English Freckles, FRECKLES, ephelides, ephelides (diagnosis), freckle, ephelis, melanotic macule, Sun spots, Freckling, Focal melanosis (morphologic abnormality), Focal melanosis, Ephelis, Freckle, Ephelides, Ephelides (disorder), Ephelis (disorder), Melanotic macule, freckle(s), freckles
Spanish PECAS, Pecas, Manchas solares, melanosis focal, melanosis focal (anomalía morfológica), efélides (trastorno), efélides, mácula melanótica (trastorno), mácula melanótica, pecas, Efélides
Italian Efelidi, Macchie solari, Lentiggini
Dutch sproeten, zonnevlekken, ephelis, Sproeten
Japanese そばかす, 雀卵斑, ソバカス, ジャクランハン, 日光斑, ニッコウハン
Portuguese Sardas, SARDA, Manchas provocadas pela exposição ao sol, Efélides
French Éphélides, EPHELIDES, Taches dues au soleil, Ephélides, Taches de rousseur
German Sommersprossen, Epheliden, SOMMERSPROSSEN, Sonnenflecken, Ephelides
Czech Pihy, pihy, Sluneční skvrny
Korean 주근깨
Hungarian Szeplős, Ephelides, Nap foltok
Norwegian Efelider, Fregner