II. Definitions

  1. Ptosis
    1. Failed Eyelid opening or drooping upper Eyelid

III. Causes

  1. Congenital
    1. Bilateral paralysis of Levator palpebrae superioris (congenital levator paralysis)
      1. Causes complete Ptosis
  2. Acquired
    1. Oculomotor Nerve Paralysis (CN 3 Palsy)
      1. Anisocoria with Mydriasis and absent Pupillary Light Reflex
    2. Encephalitis
    3. Horner's Syndrome
      1. Incomplete Ptosis
      2. Anisocoria with Miosis but normal Pupillary Light Reflex
      3. Anhydrosis
    4. Myasthenia Gravis
      1. No pupil defect
      2. Accompanied by weakness on eating, chewing, Swallowing
      3. Also proximal extremity Muscle Weakness and may progress to respiratory Muscle Weakness
    5. Myotonic Dystrophy
    6. Orbital inflammation
    7. Orbital Neoplasm
    8. Orbital Trauma

IV. References

  1. Trobe (2012) Physician's Guide to Eye Care, AAO, San Francisco, p. 50-2

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