III. Mechanism

  1. Nasal mucosa is well vascularized with rapid medication absorption
  2. Ideal intranasal medications are lipophilic and small in molecular size
  3. Intranasal medications are best tolerated and absorbed at pH 4.5 to 6.5
  4. Maximal amount that may be absorbed intranasally is 0.3 ml
  5. Typical drug delivery is via a Mucosal Atomization Device (MAD Atomizer)
    1. Device has 0.1 ml dead space (draw up extra 0.1 ml medication)

IV. Preparations: Intranasal medications for analgesia and sedation

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