II. Definitions

  1. Parenteral Route
    1. Term parenteral is derived from "around the intestinal tract" (i.e. bypassing the intestinal tract)
    2. Parenteral routes are preferred for conditions in which rapid absorption and consistent drug levels are critical (e.g. Resuscitation, Sepsis)
    3. Parenteral routes risk infection as well as pain of administration

III. Types

  1. Intravenous (IV)
    1. Rapid onset of action and consistent and predictable drug levels
    2. Requires sterile, soluble drugs and Intravenous Access
  2. Intramuscular (IM)
    1. See Intramuscular Injection
    2. Drugs (e.g. Epinephrine, Penicillin) injected into large Muscle regions (e.g. Shoulder, thigh, buttock) rely on local capillary absorption
    3. Absorption is dependent on formulations (slow absorption with lipid preparations, faster absorption with aqueous preparations)
  3. Subcutaneous (SQ or SC)
    1. See Subcutaneous Injection
    2. Drugs (e.g. Insulin, Morphine, Enoxaparin) are injected beneath the skin and absorbed via local capillaries

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