II. Physiology: Sensory stimuli

  1. Mechanical stimulation
    1. Touch and Pressure
    2. Vibration
    3. Baroreceptors (e.g. aortic and carotid bodies)
    4. Sound receptors (e.g. Cochlea) allowing for hearing
    5. Movement against gravity (Vestibular Labyrinths) allowing for balance
  2. Thermal stimulation
    1. Hot and cold Sensation
  3. Pain stimulation
    1. Nociceptors
  4. Chemical stimulation
    1. Taste Bud
    2. Olfactory receptors allowing for smell
    3. pH Receptors (central chemoreceptors on ventrolateral Medulla in Brainstem)
    4. Osmolality receptors (supraoptic nuclei Hypothalamus)
  5. Electromagnetic stimulation
    1. Retinal Photoreceptors (rods, cones) allowing for vision

III. Physiology: Somatic Sensory Nerve Endings

  1. Free Nerve Endings
    1. Includes pain (nociceptors) and Temperature (thermoreceptors)
    2. Also includes touch (Merkel disks) and Hair Root tactile receptors
    3. Unmyelinated fibers spread throughout Epidermis and Dermis
  2. Encapsulated Receptors
    1. Specialized functioning receptors for detection of all other Sensations except pain and Temperature
    2. Includes light touch (Meissner's corpuscle), deep pressure and vibration (Pacinian Corpuscle)
    3. Also includes muscle stretch (muscle spindle receptors) and muscle tendon tension (golgi tendon organs)

IV. References

  1. Goldberg (2014) Clinical Physiology p. 90-2
  2. Guyton and Hall (2006) Medical Physiology, p. 572-84

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Ontology: Perception (C0030971)

Definition (ICF) Specific mental functions of recognizing and interpreting sensory stimuli.
Definition (ICF-CY) Specific mental functions of recognizing and interpreting sensory stimuli.
Definition (NCI) The process of producing an internal, conscious image through stimulating a sensory system; it involves the recognition that stimulation has occurred, and the ability to discriminate various aspects of the stimulus.
Definition (MSH) The process by which the nature and meaning of sensory stimuli are recognized and interpreted.
Definition (PSY) Conceptually broad term referring to the process of obtaining cognitive or sensory information about the environment. Use a more specific term if possible.
Definition (CSP) the process of producing an internal, conscious image through stimulating a sensory system; it involves the recognition that stimulation has occurred, and the ability to discriminate various aspects of the stimulus.
Concepts Mental Process (T041)
MSH D010465
SnomedCT 81742003, 275276009
English Perception, Perceptions, Perception, function, Perceptual functions, unspecified, Perceptual functions, perceptions, perceiving, perception, perceived, Perceived, Perception (observable entity), Perception, function (observable entity), Perception, NOS, Perception (function)
Swedish Uppfattning
Czech vnímání, percepce
Finnish Aistimukset
Russian VOSPRIIATIE, ВОСПРИЯТИЕ
Croatian PERCEPCIJA
Polish Postrzeganie, Percepcja
Norwegian Sansing, Sansning, Persepsjon
Spanish percepción (entidad observable), percepción (función), percepción, Percepción
French Perception
German Perzeption, Wahrnehmung
Italian Percezione
Dutch Perceptie, Waarneming
Portuguese Percepção

Ontology: Somatic sensation (C0234209)

Definition (CSP) consciousness of having a body.
Concepts Organism Function (T040)
SnomedCT 90130008, 397725003
English somesthesis, somatesthesia, Somatic sensation, Somesthesia, Somaesthesia, Somataesthesia, Somatesthesia, Somatic sensation, function (observable entity), Somatic sensation, function, Somatic sensation (function)
Spanish sensación somática (entidad observable), somestesia, sensación somática, sensación somática (función), sensación somática, función (entidad observable), sensación somática, función