II. Exam

  1. Misperceptions
    1. Wrong conclusions from straight-forward (self-evident) information?
  2. Illusions
    1. Misinterpreted Sensations such as a shadow seen as a person?
  3. Hallucinations
    1. Visual Hallucinations
      1. Most common
      2. Visual Hallucinations occur most often in organic conditions
      3. Phantom Border Syndrome
        1. Unseen person living in home
    2. Auditory Hallucinations
      1. Auditory Hallucinations are most often seen in Schizophrenia
      2. Are Auditory Hallucinations accusatory, threatening or commanding?
    3. Tactile Hallucinations
      1. Tactile Hallucinations are most common with Alcohol Withdrawal or Benzodiazepine Withdrawal
    4. Gustatory Hallucinations
      1. Taste perceived without external stimulus
    5. Olfactory Hallucinations (Phantosmia)
      1. See Olfactory Dysfunction
      2. Odor perceived without external odor stimulus
      3. May occur in Schizophrenia and Mood Disorder
      4. Consider Temporal Lobe Epilepsy, chronic Migraine Headaches, Brain Tumor, and Parkinson's Disease

III. Interpretation

  1. Illusions occur in Delirium and Psychosis
  2. Hallucinations are most common in Psychosis

IV. References

  1. Zum, Swaminathan and Egan in Herbert (2014) EM:Rap 14(7): 11-13
  2. Tomb (1992) Psychiatry, 4th Ed, Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore, p. 6-11

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