II. Exam

  1. Misperceptions
    1. Wrong conclusions from straight-forward (self-evident) information?
  2. Illusions
    1. Misinterpreted Sensations such as a shadow seen as a person?
  3. Hallucinations
    1. Visual Hallucinations
      1. Most common
      2. Visual Hallucinations occur most often in organic conditions
      3. Phantom Border Syndrome
        1. Unseen person living in home
    2. Auditory Hallucinations
      1. Auditory Hallucinations are most often seen in Schizophrenia
      2. Are Auditory Hallucinations accusatory, threatening or commanding?
    3. Tactile Hallucinations
      1. Tactile Hallucinations are most common with Alcohol Withdrawal or Benzodiazepine Withdrawal
    4. Gustatory Hallucinations
      1. Taste perceived without external stimulus
    5. Olfactory Hallucinations (Phantosmia)
      1. See Olfactory Dysfunction
      2. Odor perceived without external odor stimulus
      3. May occur in Schizophrenia and Mood Disorder
      4. Consider Temporal Lobe Epilepsy, chronic Migraine Headaches, Brain Tumor, and Parkinson's Disease

III. Interpretation

  1. Illusions occur in Delirium and Psychosis
  2. Hallucinations are most common in Psychosis

IV. References

  1. Zum, Swaminathan and Egan in Herbert (2014) EM:Rap 14(7): 11-13
  2. Tomb (1992) Psychiatry, 4th Ed, Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore, p. 6-11

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Related Studies

Ontology: Hallucinations (C0018524)

Definition (CHV) a false sensory perception in the absence of an external stimulus
Definition (CHV) a false sensory perception in the absence of an external stimulus
Definition (CHV) a false sensory perception in the absence of an external stimulus
Definition (CHV) a false sensory perception in the absence of an external stimulus
Definition (CHV) a false sensory perception in the absence of an external stimulus
Definition (NCI_NCI-GLOSS) A sight, sound, smell, taste, or touch that a person believes to be real but is not real. Hallucinations can be caused by nervous system disease, certain drugs, or mental disorders.
Definition (NCI_CTCAE) A disorder characterized by a false sensory perception in the absence of an external stimulus.
Definition (NCI) A false sensory perception in the absence of an external stimulus, as distinct from an illusion which is a misperception of an external stimulus.
Definition (MSH) Subjectively experienced sensations in the absence of an appropriate stimulus, but which are regarded by the individual as real. They may be of organic origin or associated with MENTAL DISORDERS.
Definition (PSY) Perceptions through any sense modality in the absence of an appropriate stimulus. (Usually indicative of abnormality but may be experienced occasionally by normal persons).
Definition (CSP) subjectively experienced sensations in the absence of an appropriate stimulus, but which are regarded by the individual as real; may be of organic origin, drug induced, or associated with a mental disorder.
Concepts Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction (T048)
MSH D006212
ICD9 780.1
ICD10 R44.3
SnomedCT 206718003, 206724009, 7011001, 139488007, 158127006
LNC MTHU020847, LA7438-0
French HALLUCINATION, Hallucination SAI, Hallucinant, Hallucination, Hallucinations
English HALLUCINATION, Hallucinations, unspecified, [D]Hallucinations (context-dependent category), [D]Hallucinations NOS (context-dependent category), [D]Hallucinations, [D]Hallucinations NOS, hallucinations, hallucinations (symptom), hallucinations as symptom, hallucinations (imagined perceptions not based in reality), Hallucinations, Hallucinating, Hallucination NOS, Hallucinations [Disease/Finding], hallucinated, hallucinate, hallucinating, hallucination, [D]Hallucinations NOS (situation), [D]Hallucinations (situation), Hallucination, Hallucinations (finding), Hallucination, NOS, Hallucinations NOS
Portuguese ALUCINACOES, Alucinação NE, Em fase de alucinações, Alucinação, Alucinações
Spanish ALUCINACIONES, Alucinatorio, Alucinación NEOM, [D]alucinaciones (categoría dependiente del contexto), [D]alucinaciones visuales SAI (categoría dependiente del contexto), [D]alucinaciones visuales SAI, [D]alucinaciones (situación), [D]alucinaciones, [D]alucinaciones visuales SAI (situación), alucinaciones (hallazgo), alucinaciones, alucinación (hallazgo), alucinación, Alucinación, Alucinaciones
German HALLUZINATIONEN, Halluzination NNB, halluzinierend, Halluzinationen, nicht naeher bezeichnet, Halluzination, Halluzinationen
Italian Allucinazione, Allucinogeno, Allucinazione NAS, Allucinazioni
Dutch hallucinatie NAO, hallucinaties, hallucineren, Hallucinaties, niet gespecificeerd, hallucinatie, Hallucinatie, Hallucinaties
Japanese 幻覚NOS, ゲンカク, ゲンカクNOS, 幻覚, 入眠幻覚, 幻覚症, 幻覚-入眠時, 入眠時幻覚
Swedish Hallucinationer
Czech halucinace, Halucinující, Halucinace NOS, Halucinace
Finnish Aistiharhat
Korean 상세불명의 환각
Polish Omamy, Halucynacje
Hungarian Hallucinálás, Hallucinatio k.m.n., Hallucinatiók, Hallucinatio
Norwegian Hallusinasjoner

Ontology: Illusions (C0020903)

Definition (NCI) A misperception of a real external stimulus.
Definition (MSH) The misinterpretation of a real external, sensory experience.
Definition (PSY) Misperception or alteration of reality in subjective perception.
Definition (CSP) misinterpretation of a real external, sensory experience.
Concepts Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction (T048)
MSH D007088
SnomedCT 5152006
English Illusion, ILLUSION, Illusions, Illusions [Disease/Finding], illusion, illusion perception, illusions, Illusions (finding), Illusion, NOS, Illusions (Perception)
French ILLUSION, Illusion, Illusions
Spanish ILUSIONES, ilusiones (hallazgo), ilusiones, ilusión (hallazgo), ilusión, Ilusiones
Italian Illusione, Illusioni
Swedish Illusioner
Japanese サッカク, 感覚錯誤, 錯覚, イリュージョン
Czech iluze, Iluze
Finnish Havaintovirheet
German ILLUSIONAERE VERKENNUNGEN, IIlusionen, Sinnestäuschungen
Portuguese ILUSAO, Ilusão, Ilusões
Polish Złudzenia, Iluzje, Zjawisko autokinetyczne
Hungarian Illúzió
Norwegian Innbildninger, Illusjoner
Dutch illusie, Illusie

Ontology: Perception (C0030971)

Definition (ICF) Specific mental functions of recognizing and interpreting sensory stimuli.
Definition (ICF-CY) Specific mental functions of recognizing and interpreting sensory stimuli.
Definition (NCI) The process of producing an internal, conscious image through stimulating a sensory system; it involves the recognition that stimulation has occurred, and the ability to discriminate various aspects of the stimulus.
Definition (MSH) The process by which the nature and meaning of sensory stimuli are recognized and interpreted.
Definition (PSY) Conceptually broad term referring to the process of obtaining cognitive or sensory information about the environment. Use a more specific term if possible.
Definition (CSP) the process of producing an internal, conscious image through stimulating a sensory system; it involves the recognition that stimulation has occurred, and the ability to discriminate various aspects of the stimulus.
Concepts Mental Process (T041)
MSH D010465
SnomedCT 81742003, 275276009
English Perception, Perceptions, Perception, function, Perceptual functions, unspecified, Perceptual functions, perceptions, perceiving, perception, perceived, Perceived, Perception (observable entity), Perception, function (observable entity), Perception, NOS, Perception (function)
Swedish Uppfattning
Czech vnímání, percepce
Finnish Aistimukset
Polish Postrzeganie, Percepcja
Norwegian Sansing, Sansning, Persepsjon
Spanish percepción (entidad observable), percepción (función), percepción, Percepción
French Perception
German Perzeption, Wahrnehmung
Italian Percezione
Dutch Perceptie, Waarneming
Portuguese Percepção

Ontology: Hallucinations, Auditory (C0233762)

Concepts Sign or Symptom (T184)
MSH D006212
ICD10 R44.0
SnomedCT 206719006, 45150006, 158128001
English HALLUCINATION AUDITORY, Hallucination auditory, Hallucination, auditory, Hallucinations Auditory, Hallucinations, auditory, [D]Hallucinations, auditory (context-dependent category), [D]Hallucinations, auditory, Auditory hallucination, auditory hallucination, hallucination auditory, auditory hallucination (physical finding), Auditory Hallucination, Hallucination, Auditory, auditory hallucinations, [D]Hallucinations, auditory (situation), Auditory hallucinations, Auditory hallucinations (finding), auditory; hallucination, hallucination; auditory, Auditory Hallucinations, Hallucinations, Auditory
Italian Allucinazione uditiva, Allucinazioni uditive
Dutch auditieve hallucinaties, hallucinaties gehoor, akoestisch; hallucinatie, hallucinatie; akoestisch, Akoestische hallucinaties, auditieve hallucinatie
German akustische Halluzinationen, Akustische Halluzinationen, HALLUZINATIONEN AKUSTISCH, Halluzination, akustisch
Portuguese Alucinações auditivas, ALUCINACAO AUDITIVA, Alucinação auditiva
Spanish Alucinaciones auditivas, [D]alucinaciones auditivas (categoría dependiente del contexto), ALUCINACION AUDITIVA, [D]alucinaciones auditivas (situación), [D]alucinaciones auditivas, alucinaciones auditivas (hallazgo), alucinaciones auditivas, alucinación auditiva (hallazgo), alucinación auditiva, Alucinación auditiva
Japanese 幻聴, ゲンチョウ
French Hallucinations auditives, HALLUCINATION AUDITIVE, Hallucination auditive
Czech Halucinace, sluchová, Halucinace sluchová, Sluchové halucinace, sluchové halucinace, auditivní halucinace
Korean 환청
Hungarian Hallucinatio, hallási, Acustikus hallucinatiók
Norwegian Auditive hallusinasjoner, Hallusinasjoner, auditive

Ontology: Hallucinations, Visual (C0233763)

Concepts Sign or Symptom (T184)
MSH D006212
ICD10 R44.1
SnomedCT 206723003, 64269007, 155140002, 267724006
English HALLUCINATION VISUAL, Hallucination, visual, [D]Visual hallucinations, Hallucinations Visual, [D]Visual hallucinations (context-dependent category), Visual hallucination, visual hallucination (physical finding), hallucination visual, visual hallucinations (diagnosis), visual hallucination, visual hallucinations, Hallucination visual, Hallucination, Visual, Visual Hallucination, see thing, see things, seeing thing, seeing things, hallucinations visual, [D]Visual hallucinations (situation), Seeing things, Visual hallucinations, Visual hallucinations (finding), hallucination; visual, vision; hallucinations, visual; hallucination, Visual Hallucinations, Hallucinations, Visual
Italian Allucinazione visiva, Allucinazioni visive
Dutch visuele hallucinatie, hallucinatie visueel, hallucinatie; visueel, visueel; hallucinatie, visus; hallucinaties, Visuele hallucinaties, hallucinatie, visueel
German visuelle Halluzinationen, HALLUZINATIONEN OPTISCH, Optische Halluzinationen, Halluzination, optisch
Portuguese Alucinações visuais, ALUCINACAO VISUAL, Alucinação visual
Spanish Alucinaciones visuales, [D]alucinaciones visuales (categoría dependiente del contexto), ALUCINACION VISUAL, [D]alucinaciones visuales, [D]alucinaciones visuales (situación), alucinación visual (hallazgo), alucinación visual, Alucinación visual
Japanese 幻視, ゲンシ
French Hallucinations visuelles, HALLUCINATION VISUELLE, Hallucination visuelle
Czech Halucinace vizuální, Zrakové halucinace, Halucinace, zraková, vizuální halucinace, zrakové halucinace
Korean 환시
Hungarian Hallucinatio, visuális, Látási hallucinatio, Látási hallucinatiók
Norwegian Hallusinasjoner, visuelle, Visuelle hallusinasjoner

Ontology: Hallucinations, Gustatory (C0233766)

Concepts Sign or Symptom (T184)
MSH D006212
SnomedCT 206720000, 29139005, 158129009
English Hallucination, gustatory, Hallucination gustatory, Hallucinations, gustatory, [D]Hallucinations, gustatory (context-dependent category), [D]Hallucinations, gustatory, Gustatory hallucination, Gustatory Hallucination, Gustatory Hallucinations, Hallucination, Gustatory, gustatory hallucination, gustatory hallucination (physical finding), hallucinations taste, gustatory hallucinations, [D]Hallucinations, gustatory (situation), Gustatory hallucinations, Hallucinations of taste, Gustatory hallucinations (finding), gustatory; hallucination, hallucination; gustatory, Hallucinations, Gustatory
Italian Allucinazione gustativa
Dutch smaakhallucinaties, hallucinatie; smaak, smaak; hallucinatie, smaakhallucinatie
Japanese 幻味, ゲンミ
Spanish [D]alucinaciones gustativas (categoría dependiente del contexto), [D]alucinaciones gustativas, [D]alucinaciones gustativas (situación), alucinaciones gustativas (hallazgo), alucinaciones gustativas, alucinación gustativa (hallazgo), alucinación gustativa, Alucinación gustativa
French Hallucinations gustatives, Hallucination gustative
Czech Halucinace chuťová, Halucinace, chuťová, chuťové halucinace, gustatorické halucinace
Hungarian Hallucinatio, ízérzési, Hallucinatio, gustatoros
Norwegian Hallusinasjoner, smaksmessige, Smaksmessige hallusinasjoner
Portuguese Alucinação gustativa
German Halluzination, Geschmack

Ontology: Hallucinations, Tactile (C0233767)

Concepts Finding (T033)
MSH D006212
SnomedCT 206722008, 66609003, 158131000
English Hallucinations Tactile, Hallucinations, tactile, [D]Hallucinations, tactile (context-dependent category), [D]Hallucinations, tactile, Hallucinat of tactile sensat, Tactile hallucination, tactile hallucination (physical finding), tactile hallucination, hallucination tactile, Hallucination, tactile, Hallucination, Tactile, Tactile Hallucination, Tactile Hallucinations, haptic hallucinations, tactile hallucinations, [D]Hallucinations, tactile (situation), Haptic hallucination, Tactile hallucinations, Haptic hallucinations, Hallucinations of tactile sensation, Tactile hallucinations (finding), hallucination; tactile, tactile; hallucination, Hallucinations, Tactile
Italian Allucinazione tattile, Allucinazioni tattili
Dutch haptische hallucinatie, haptische hallucinaties, hallucinatie; tactiel, tactiel; hallucinatie, gevoelshallucinatie
German haptische Halluzinationen, haptische Halluzination, Halluzination, taktil
Portuguese Alucinações tácteis, Alucinação táctil
Spanish Alucinaciones hápticas, Alucinación háptica, [D]alucinaciones táctiles (categoría dependiente del contexto), [D]alucinaciones táctiles, [D]alucinaciones táctiles (situación), alucinación háptica, alucinación táctil (hallazgo), alucinación táctil, Alucinación tactil
Japanese 触覚性幻覚, 幻触, ゲンショク, ショッカクセイゲンカク
French Hallucinations tactiles, Hallucination tactile, Hallucinations cénesthésiques
Czech Halucinace, taktilní, Haptické halucinace, Haptická halucinace, hmatové halucinace, taktilní halucinace
Hungarian Tactilis hallucinatiók, Hallucinatio, tactilis, Tactilis hallucinatio
Norwegian Taktile hallusinasjoner, Hallusinasjoner, taktile

Ontology: Phantosmia (C2242552)

Concepts Sign or Symptom (T184)
English Phantosmia
Spanish Fantosmia
Dutch phantosmia
German Phantosmia
Japanese ジハツテキイジョウキュウカン, 自発的異常嗅感
Czech Fantosmie
Portuguese Fantosmia
Italian Fantosmia
French Phantosmie
Hungarian Phantosmia