II. Technique

  1. Using a blunt tool (e.g. reflex hammer handle) stroke the sole of the foot from heel to base of toes

III. Findings

  1. Normal Response in over age 2 years (down-going toes, Negative Babinksi)
    1. Plantar flexion of great toe and small toe
  2. Abnormal Babinski Test (up-going toes, Positive Babinksi)
    1. Dorsiflexion of the great toe
    2. Splaying or fanning or all toes
    3. May be associated with ankle dorsiflexion, and knee/thigh flexion
  3. Abnormal: Brissaud Reflex
    1. Tensor Fasciae Lata contraction (lateral thigh) in response to stroking sole of foot in Babinski Test
    2. Useful to observe when great toe movement cannot be observed (e.g. toe amputation)

IV. Interpretation

  1. Positive Babinski Reflex is normal in newborns and may be seen in normal children up to age 2 years
  2. Suggests Upper Motor Neuron Lesion (pyramidal tract deficit) in age over 2 years

V. References

  1. Degowin and Degowin (1987) Bedside Diagnostic Exam, Macmillan Publishing, New York, p. 818

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Related Studies

Ontology: Babinski Reflex (C0034935)

Definition (NCI) A reflex characterized by upward movement of the great toe and an outward movement of the rest of the toes, when the sole of the foot is stroked. It is a normal reflex up to the age of two. Its presence beyond that age indicates neurological damage.
Definition (MSH) A reflex found in normal infants consisting of dorsiflexion of the HALLUX and abduction of the other TOES in response to cutaneous stimulation of the plantar surface of the FOOT. In adults, it is used as a diagnostic criterion, and if present is a NEUROLOGIC MANIFESTATION of dysfunction in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Concepts Finding (T033)
MSH D001405
SnomedCT 63833001, 246586009, 366575004
LNC MTHU015015
English Babinski Reflex, Babinski Reflexes, Reflex, Babinski, Reflexes, Babinski, BABINSKI SIGN POSITIVE, REFLEX BABINSKI POSITIVE, REFLEX PLANTAR EXTENSOR, REFLEX PLANTAR UPGOING, Babinski's reflex, Babinski's Phenomenon, Babinski sign, Extensor plantar responses, Babinski reflex (physical finding), Babinski reflex, Positive Babinski, Reflex Babinski positive, Positive Babinski response, Babinski sign positive, Sign Babinski present, Reflex plantar extensor, Plantar response extensor, Reflex plantar upgoing, Upgoing plantars, Babinski's Reflex, Reflex, Babinski's, Extensor Plantar Reflex, Plantar Reflex, Extensor, Reflex, Extensor Plantar, Extensor Plantar Response, Extensor Plantar Responses, Plantar Response, Extensor, Plantar Responses, Extensor, Response, Extensor Plantar, Responses, Extensor Plantar, Babinski Sign Positive, Babinski's Sign, Babinski Sign, Reflex, Babinski [Disease/Finding], babinski reflex, extensor plantar reflex, babinskis reflex, babinski's reflex, positive babinski sign, babinski signs, babinski's sign, extensor plantar responses, babinski sign, positive babinski, babinski's signs, babinski positive, plantar extensor response, Babinski sign (finding), Extensor plantar response, Extensor plantar response (observable entity), Extensor plantar response finding (finding), Extensor plantar response finding, Babinski, Extensor plantar reflex, Babinski sign (finding) [Ambiguous]
Italian Riflesso plantare di estensione, Segno di Babinski positivo, Riflesso di Babinski positivo, Riflesso plantare in estensione, Segno di Babinski presente, Riflesso plantare verso l'alto, Babinski positivo, Riflesso estensore plantare, Risposte plantari verso l'alto, Riflessi di Babinski, Segno di Babinski, Riflesso plantare, Estensione riflessa dell'alluce, Riflesso di Babinski
Dutch positieve Babinski-reactie, reflex van Babinski positief, Babinski-teken positief, voetzool extensoren respons, voetzoolreflex extensie, positieve Babinski, voetzoolreflex omhooggericht, opwaarts gerichte voetzoolreflexen, teken van Babinski aanwezig, extensoren voetzool respons, Babinski-reflex, Paradoxale extensorreflex, grote teen, Reflex, Babinski-, Voetzoolreflex volgens Babinski
French Babinski positif, Réflexe de Babinski positif, Signe de Babinski présent, Signe de Babinski positif, Réflexe plantaire en extension, Verrues plantaires ascendantes, Réflexe plantaire vers le haut, BABINSKI POSITIF, REFLEX PLANTAIRE EN EXTENSION, REFLEXE PLANTAIRE EN EXTENSION, SIGNE DE BABINSKI POSITIF, Réflexe cutané plantaire en extension, Réflexe cutané plantaire, Réflexe de Babinski, Signe de Babinski
German positiver Babinski, Reflex, Babinski, gesteigerte Plantarreflexe, Zeichen, Babinski, nachweisbar, Babinski-Zeichen positiv, positiver Babinski Reflex, Reflex, Babinski, positiv, Plantarreflex gesteigert, BABINSKY REFLEX POSITIV, BABINSKY ZEICHEN POSITIV, FUSSSOHLENREFLEX AUSLOESBAR, FUSSSOHLENREFLEX VERLAENGERT, Babinski Reflex, Babinski-Reflex, Reflex, Babinski-, Extensorreflex, plantarer, Extensorreflex der Großzehe, paradoxer
Portuguese Sinal de Babinski positivo, Reflexo de Babinski positivo, Resposta Babinski positiva, Reflexo plantar extensor, Sinal de Babinski presente, Babinski positivo, Reflexos plantares em extensão, Resposta plantar extensora, REFLEXO DE BABINSKI POSITIVO, REFLEXO PLANTAR EM EXTENSAO, SINAL DE BABINSKY POSITIVO, Reflexo de Babinski, Reflexo Paradoxal do Entensor do Grande Artelho, Resposta do Extensor Plantar
Spanish Respuesta de Babinski positiva, Reflejo plantar extensor, Signo de Babinski positivo, Babinski positivo, Extensión plantar, Presencia de signo de Babinski, BABINSKY POSITIVO, REFLEJO BABINSKI POSITIVO, REFLEJO PLANTAR EXISTENTE, REFLEJO PLANTAR EXTENSOR, signo de Babinski (hallazgo), signo de Babinski, reflejo plantar extensor, hallazgo en la respuesta del músculo extensor plantar (hallazgo), hallazgo en la respuesta del músculo extensor plantar, respuesta del músculo extensor de la planta del pie (entidad observable), respuesta del músculo extensor de la planta del pie, signo de Babinski (concepto no activo), Respuesta plantar extensora
Japanese バビンスキー陽性, 足底反射陽性, 足底伸展反射, バビンスキー反応陽性, バビンスキー反射陽性, 伸展性足底反応, バビンスキー徴候陽性, シンテンセイソクテイハンノウ, バビンスキーヨウセイ, バビンスキーハンシャヨウセイ, バビンスキーハンノウヨウセイ, ソクテイハンシャヨウセイ, ソクテイシンテンハンシャ, バビンスキーチョウコウヨウセイ, Babinski反射, Babinski徴候, バビンスキー反射, バビンスキー徴候, 母趾反射, バビンスキー現象, 反射-Babinski, 反射-バビンスキー
Swedish Babinskireflex
Czech Babinského reflex, Extenční plantární reflex, Pozitivní Babinskiho znamení, Pozitivní Babinski, Pozitivní Babinského reflex, Babinskiho znamení přítomné, Extenční plantární odpověď, Pozitivní Babinskiho odpověď, extenzní reflex, Babinského příznak, kožní plantární reflex, Babinského znamení
Finnish Babinskin heijaste
Polish Odruch Babińskiego
Hungarian Talpi extensor reflex, Pozitív Babinski, Pozitív Babinski-tünet, Plantaris extensor válasz, Babinski-tünet pozitív, Pozitív Babinski jel, Pozitív Babinski-válasz, Pozitív Babinski-reflex, Plantaris extensor reflex, Extensor talp reflex
Norwegian Fotsålerefleks, Positiv Babinskis refleks, Oppadvendt plantarrefleks, Positiv plantarrefleks, Babinskis refleks, Plantarrefleks, Babinskis tegn, Refleks, fotsåle-, Plantarrefleks, oppadvendt, Refleks, plantar-