II. Precaution

  1. Back should be exposed (e.g. in gown) to allow for adequate palpation and visualization

IV. Exam: Other findings

  1. Gastrointestinal findings
    1. Epigastric or right upper quadrant tenderness
      1. Peptic Ulcer Disease
      2. Pancreatitis
      3. Cholecystitis
    2. Flank Pain
      1. Nephrolithiasis
    3. Midline pulsatile mass
      1. Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm
    4. Decreased Rectal Tone or decreased perineal Sensation
      1. Cauda Equina Syndrome
  2. Genitourinary findings
    1. Adnexal tenderness or cervical motion tenderness
      1. Pelvic Inflammatory Disease
    2. Prostate tenderness and swelling
      1. Prostatitis
    3. Urinary Retention (with significant post-void residual)
      1. Cauda Equina Syndrome
  3. Vascular findings
    1. Varicosities of lower extremities
    2. Diminished peripheral pulses
      1. Peripheral Arterial Disease (Claudication)
  4. Skin Findings
    1. Cafe-Au-Lait Spots
    2. Cutaneous Signs of Dysraphism (e.g. midline hairy patches)
    3. Lipomata
    4. Pilonidal Cyst
    5. Perirectal Abscess

V. Diagnostics

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