II. Epidemiology

  1. Prostatitis accounts for 25% genitourinary complaints in men

III. Types: NIH Consensus Classification of Prostatitis

  1. Acute Bacterial Prostatitis
    1. Severe, acute prostate Bacterial Infection with an ill, toxic appearing patient
  2. Chronic Bacterial Prostatitis
    1. Symptoms >3 months with culture demonstrating the same organism
  3. Chronic Nonbacterial Prostatitis (90% of Chronic Prostatitis)
    1. Symptoms >3 months with inconsistent culture results
    2. May be Inflammatory (White Blood Cells >10 per HPF) or Non-Inflammatory
    3. Causes Chronic Pelvic Pain in Men
  4. Asymptomatic Prostatitis
    1. White Blood Cells >10 per HPF despite lack of symptoms

IV. Types: Uncommon

  1. Gonococcal Prostatitis (NeisseriaGonorrheae)
  2. Tuberculous Prostatitis (Tuberculosis)
  3. Parasitic Prostatitis (e.g. Trichomonas vaginalis)
  4. Mycotic Prostatitis (Fungal organisms - Aspergillus, Candida, Cryptococcus, Histoplasma)

V. Symptoms

  1. Irritative urinary symptoms
    1. Dysuria
    2. Urinary Frequency
    3. Urinary urgency
    4. Ejaculatory pain
    5. Hematospermia
  2. Referred pain
    1. Low pack pain
    2. Perineal pain
    3. Lower Abdominal Pain
    4. Scrotal Pain
    5. Pain in penis
    6. Pain in inner thighs
  3. Systemic symptoms (e.g. fever)
    1. Suggests Acute Prostatitis, Prostate abscess or other significant acute infection
  4. Obstructive urinary symptoms (diminished urinary stream, hesitancy, straining)
    1. Suggests Acute Prostatitis, Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia

VI. Exam

  1. Abdominal exam including Pelvis and flank
  2. Genitourinary exam (scrotal exam and penis exam)
  3. Digital Rectal Exam
    1. Avoid Prostatic Massage in suspected Acute Bacterial Prostatitis
    2. Obtain Urinalysis and Urine Culture before and after Prostatic Massage

VIII. Precautions

  1. Cystoscopy (and urine cytology) Indications
    1. Hematuria and Bladder Cancer risk factors (Tobacco Abuse, age >40 years old)

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