II. Epidemiology

  1. Histologic evidence of Prostate Cancer on autopsy
    1. Men over age 50 years: 30%
    2. Men over age 80 years: 70%
  2. Clinical Incidence
    1. Incidence (2017 in U.S.): 161,000 new cases
    2. Incidence tripled in 10 years prior to 1997 (PSA detection)
    3. Lifetime diagnosis occurs in 17% of men (1 in 6)
      1. Prostate Cancer diagnosis after age 65 years old in 60% of cases
      2. Prostate Cancer deaths are in over age 75 years old in 70% of cases
  3. Mortality
    1. Second leading cause of cancer death in men (Second to Lung Cancer)
    2. However, only 3% of men die of Prostate Cancer (26,700 deaths in 2017, U.S.)

III. Risk Factors

  1. Age (Incidental finding on Autopsy)
    1. Age 50 years: 30% incidence Prostate Cancer
    2. Age 60 years: 35% incidence Prostate Cancer
    3. Age 70 years: 40% incidence Prostate Cancer
    4. Age 80 years: 55% incidence Prostate Cancer
    5. Age over 90 years: 100% incidence Prostate Cancer
  2. Ethnicity
    1. Black Men: 64 per 100,000 (confers twice risk of caucasian men)
    2. Caucasian Men: 26 per 100,000 (confers twice risk of asian men)
    3. Lower risk ethnicity: Asian and hispanic
  3. Family History (Relative Risk of Prostate Cancer)
    1. First degree relative with Prostate Cancer: Relative Risk of 2.5 to 3
    2. Brother with Prostate Cancer before age 63: Relative Risk of 4
    3. Sister with Breast Cancer: Relative Risk of 2
    4. Other Family History that increases Prostate Cancer risk
      1. More than one first degree relative is affected
      2. Affected relative was under age 55 at diagnosis
  4. Nutritional Supplements
    1. Vitamin E Supplementation (400 units/day)
      1. Prostate Cancer risk increases 1 new case in 625 men
      2. Klein (2011) JAMA 306:1549-56. [PubMed]
    2. Omega 3 Fatty Acid Supplementation
      1. Prostate Cancer increased risk in some studies (preliminary)
      2. Brasky (2013) J Natl Cancer Inst 105:1132 [PubMed]
      3. Brasky (2011) Am J Epidemiol 173(12): 1429–39 [PubMed]
  5. Factors not with additional cancer risk
    1. Ejaculation frequency not associated with cancer risk
    2. Leitzmann (2004) JAMA 291:1578-86 [PubMed]

IV. Screening

  1. Indications
    1. No screening is recommended as of 2012 by AAFP and USPTF
    2. Other organizations (ACS, ACP, AUA) recommend offering screening via Shared Decision Making
      1. See Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) for Informed Consent scripting
  2. Timing (if screening is performed)
    1. Start screening (some recommend every other year)
      1. Normal risk: Starting at age 50 years old (ACP, ACS) or age 55 (AUA)
      2. High Risk: Starting at age 40 years old (AUA) or 45 years old (ACS)
        1. Examples: Black men, first degree relative with Prostate Cancer <65 years old
    2. Stop screening
      1. Stop screening by age 70 years old OR
      2. Less than 10 to 15 years Life Expectancy (ACS/AUA)
        1. See Charlson Comorbidity Index (CALE)
    3. Frequency of testing
      1. Every 1-2 years
    4. References
      1. Mulhem (2015) Am Fam Physician 92(8): 683-8 [PubMed]
  3. Testing
    1. See Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA)
    2. Digital Rectal Exam (evaluate for asymmetry, nodularity)
      1. Test Sensitivity: <60%
      2. Test Specificity: >83%
      3. Positive Predictive Value: <28%
      4. Summary: Poor efficacy with high False Positive and False Negative Rate
      5. Hoogendam (1999) Fam Pract 16(6): 621-6 [PubMed]

V. Imaging

  1. Multiparametric MRI (mpMRI)
    1. Protocols are experimental in 2022 and are not wide spread
    2. Cost is estimated at <$500
    3. May assist in risk stratification of whether biopsy is indicated
    4. May assist in directing targeted biopsy
    5. Stabile (2020) Nat Rev Urol 17(1): 41-61 [PubMed]

VI. Diagnosis

  1. Transrectal Ultrasonography-guided Prostate biopsy
    1. Biopsy cores (12 cores are standard)
      1. Twelve cores are significantly more sensitive than 6 without increased complication risk
      2. However, even 12 cores sample only 1% of the Prostate, and 20% False Negative Rate
      3. Eichler (2006) J Urol 175(5): 1605-12 [PubMed]

VIII. Complications: Metastasis

  1. Spine Metastasis (90% of Prostate Cancer metastasis)
    1. Involves Vertebral Column in 85% of cases
    2. Most often affects Lumbar Spine
    3. Identified 19 months from initial diagnosis
    4. Recurrence is common (45% risk within 2 years)
  2. Lung Metastasis (50% of Prostate Cancer metastasis)
    1. Identified 35 months from initial diagnosis
  3. Liver Metastasis (25% of Prostate Cancer metastasis)
  4. Brain Metastasis (rare)
    1. Identified 60 months from initial diagnosis
    2. Poor prognosis (average survival 7.6 months)
  5. References
    1. Benjamin (2002) Am Fam Physician 65(9): 1834-40 [PubMed]

IX. Management

X. Prevention: Possibly Protective Factors

  1. Exercise (walking)
  2. Soy Protein
  3. Flaxseeds (Phytoestrogens)
  4. Lycopones (tomatoes)
  5. Selenium
  6. Green Tea
  7. Vitamin D Supplementation
  8. Calcium Supplementation
  9. Garlic
  10. PC-SPES
  11. Grape seed extract
  12. Zinc

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Related Studies

Ontology: Malignant neoplasm of prostate (C0376358)

Definition (MEDLINEPLUS)

The prostate is the gland below a man's bladder that produces fluid for semen. Prostate cancer is common among older men. It is rare in men younger than 40. Risk factors for developing prostate cancer include being over 65 years of age, family history, being African-American, and some genetic changes.

Symptoms of prostate cancer may include

  • Problems passing urine, such as pain, difficulty starting or stopping the stream, or dribbling
  • Low back pain
  • Pain with ejaculation

Your doctor will diagnose prostate cancer by feeling the prostate through the wall of the rectum or doing a blood test for prostate-specific antigen (PSA). Other tests include ultrasound, x-rays, or a biopsy.

Treatment often depends on the stage of the cancer. How fast the cancer grows and how different it is from surrounding tissue helps determine the stage. Men with prostate cancer have many treatment options. The treatment that's best for one man may not be best for another. The options include watchful waiting, surgery, radiation therapy, hormone therapy, and chemotherapy. You may have a combination of treatments.

NIH: National Cancer Institute

Definition (NCI) A primary or metastatic malignant tumor involving the prostate gland. The vast majority are carcinomas.
Concepts Neoplastic Process (T191)
MSH D011471
ICD9 185
ICD10 C61
SnomedCT 93974005, 363448003, 399068003
LNC LA10538-9
English Cancer, Prostate, Cancers, Prostate, Prostate Cancers, Cancer, Prostatic, Cancers, Prostatic, Prostatic Cancer, Prostatic Cancers, PROSTATE CANCER, malignant neoplasm of prostate gland (diagnosis), malignant neoplasm of prostate gland, malignant neoplasm of prostate (diagnosis), malignant neoplasm of prostate, Ca prostate, Prostate cancer NOS, Prostatic cancer, Cancer of Prostate, Cancer of the Prostate, prostatic cancer, malignant tumor of prostate, malignant tumor of prostate gland, Malign neopl prostate, cancer of prostate, cancer of the prostate, Prostatic neoplasms malignant, Prostate--Cancer, -- Prostate Cancer, Prostate cancer, Cancer of prostate, Malignant prostatic tumor, Malignant prostatic tumour, Malignant tumor of prostate, Malignant tumour of prostate, CA - Cancer of prostate, Malignant tumor of prostate (disorder), prostate cancer, Malignant neoplasm prostate, Malignant neoplasm of prostate, Malignant Neoplasm of Prostate, Malignant Neoplasm of the Prostate, Malignant Prostate Neoplasm, Malignant Prostate Tumor, Malignant Tumor of Prostate, Malignant Tumor of the Prostate, Prostate Cancer, Neoplasm malig;prostate, malignant neosplasm of the prostate
Italian Tumori maligni della prostata, Cancro della prostata NAS, Tumore maligno della prostata, Cancro prostatico, Cancro della prostata
Dutch prostaatkanker NAO, kanker van de prostaat, ca prostaat, maligne neoplasma van de prostaat, Maligniteit prostaat, Maligne neoplasma van prostaat, prostaatkanker, prostaatneoplasmata maligne, Kanker van de prostaat, Prostaatkanker
French Tumeur maligne de la prostate, Carc de la prostate, Cancer de la prostate SAI, Cancer de la prostate, Tumeurs malignes prostatiques, Cancer prostatique
German boesartige Neubildung der Prostata, Ka der Prostata, Prostatakarzinom NNB, Prostatakrebs, Prostatakarzinom, Boesartige Neubildung der Prostata, Neubildungen der Prostata boesartig, Krebs der Prostata
Portuguese Neoplasia maligna da próstata, Cancro da próstata NE, Ca da próstata, Câncer de Próstata, Cancro da próstata, Neoplasias malignas prostáticas, Câncer da Próstata
Spanish Cáncer prostático, Neoplasia maligna de próstata, Cáncer de próstata NEOM, Ca de próstata, neoplasia maligna de la próstata (trastorno), Cáncer de la Próstata, Cáncer de Próstata, neoplasia maligna de la próstata, tumor maligno de la próstata (trastorno), tumor maligno de la próstata, tumor maligno de próstata (trastorno), tumor maligno de próstata, Cáncer de próstata, Neoplasias prostáticas malignas
Japanese 前立腺癌NOS, 悪性前立腺新生物, 前立腺癌, 前立腺の悪性新生物, アクセイゼンリツセンシンセイブツ, ゼンリツセンノアクセイシンセイブツ, ゼンリツセンガンNOS, ゼンリツセンガン
Czech Maligní novotvar prostaty, Maligní nádor prostaty NOS, Maligní nádor prostaty, Maligní nádorové onemocnění prostaty, Ca prostaty, Novotvary prostaty maligní
Korean 전립샘의 악성신생물
Hungarian Prosztata rákja, Prostata neoplasmák, rosszindulatú, Prostatarák k.m.n., Prosztatacarcinoma, Prostata malignus neoplasiája, Prosztatarák, Prostata rák
Norwegian Kreft i blærehalskjertel, Prostatakreft, Ondartet svulst i blærehalskjertel, Prostatacancer