II. Definitions

  1. Vitamin
    1. Nutrients that are needed in trace amounts to support normal body functions
    2. Although some Vitamins may be synthesized in humans, most Vitamins must be ingested

III. Types

  1. Water Soluble Vitamins
    1. General
      1. Most water soluble Vitamins easily wash out of foods and are poorly retained in the body (except B12)
      2. Water soluble Vitamins are highly prevalent in foods
    2. Vitamin B1 (Thiamine)
    3. Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin)
    4. Vitamin B3 (Niacin)
    5. Vitamin B5 (Pantothenic Acid)
    6. Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine, Pyridoxal, Pyridoxamine)
    7. Vitamin B7 (Biotin)
      1. Partly synthesized by intestinal Bacteria
    8. Vitamin B9 (Folate, Folacin, Folic Acid)
    9. Vitamin B12 (Cyanocobalamin)
    10. Vitamin C (Ascorbate, Ascorbic Acid)
  2. Fat Soluble Vitamins
    1. General
      1. Easily stored in the human body, but risk of toxicity from excessive concentrations
      2. Deficiency may occur in fat malabsorption and intestinal wall malabsorption conditions
    2. Vitamin A (Retinol)
    3. Vitamin D (Cholecalciferol)
    4. Vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol)
    5. Vitamin K (Phylloquinone)
      1. Partly synthesized by intestinal Bacteria

IV. Precautions

  1. Healthy adults with varied diets are unlikely to benefit from Multivitamins
  2. Excessive Vitamin intake can result in toxicity or other adverse effects
    1. Vitamin D Toxicity
    2. Iron Overload (Hemochromatosis)
    3. Excessive Beta Carotene
      1. Increased Lung Cancer risk in smokers
    4. Excessive Vitamin E
      1. Increased risk of Hemorrhagic Stroke or Prostate Cancer

V. Indications

  1. See Vitamin Deficiency for specific Vitamin indications
  2. See Bariatric Surgery for associated Vitamin Deficiencies
  3. Examples of specific Vitamins to consider for prevention in specific cohorts
    1. Vitamin D Supplementation (e.g. children, adults in northern climates)
    2. Calcium Supplementation (children, older adults)
    3. Folic Acid supplementation (women of child-bearing age)
  4. Examples of specific Vitamins to consider in underlying conditions or risks
    1. Vitamin B12 Supplementation (Metformin, Proton Pump Inhibitor, vegans and Vegetarians)

VI. References

  1. (2014) Presc Lett 21(5): 30

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Related Studies

Cost: Medications

vitamin (on 12/21/2022 at Medicaid.Gov Survey of pharmacy drug pricing)
VITAMIN A AND D OINTMENT Generic OTC $0.01 per gram
VITAMIN D2 1.25 MG(50,000 UNIT) Generic $0.13 each