II. Physiology: Gastrointestinal Motility

  1. Chewing (mastication)
    1. Chewing breaks apart food for greater surface area, allowing for later processing and absorption
    2. Nerve control: CN 5 (Trigeminal Nerve)
    3. Muscles of Mastication
      1. Masseter Muscle
      2. Temporalis Muscle
      3. Lateral Pterygoid Muscle
      4. Medial Pterygoid Muscle
  2. Swallowing
    1. See Swallowing
    2. See Dysphagia
    3. Oropharyngeal Stage
      1. Food bolus is created and moved to the posterior pharynx, propelled by the Tongue
      2. Food passes ino the esophagus, with the airway protected from aspiration
      3. Nerve control: CN 5, CN 9, CN 10 and CN 12
      4. Saliva and mucus lubricates food for easier transit
    4. Esophageal Stage
      1. See Achalasia
      2. Esophageal mucus (produced by mucous cells) lubricates the esophagus for food transit
      3. Nerve Control: CN 10
        1. Voluntary control in upper third of esophagus
        2. Involuntary, autonomic control in the lower esophagus
  3. Peristalsis
    1. See Ileus
    2. See Constipation
    3. See Diarrhea
    4. Peristalsis propels food from the Stomach forward through the intestinal tract
    5. Timing
      1. Solid Food exits the Stomach after 1-3 hours
      2. Food exits the Small Intestine (at the ileocecal valve) after 4-6 hours
      3. Food exits the colon with Defecation typically after 1-2 days
    6. Nerve Control: CN 10 (Vagal Nerve)
      1. Stimulates peristalsis
        1. Myenteric Plexus (Auerbach's plexus) between the bowel's circular and longitudinal Muscles
        2. Examples of dysfunction: Achalasia, Hirschsprung's Disease
      2. Relaxes sphincters
      3. Promotes glandular secretion
        1. Meissner's Plexus in the submucosal layer

III. Physiology: Energy Sources

  1. Background
    1. Ingested food is lysed into small component molecules for intestinal absorption
      1. Starches and Disaccharides are lysed into Monosaccharides
      2. Proteins are lysed into Amino Acids and some short-chain peptides
      3. Fats are lysed into free Fatty Acids and Cholesterol
    2. Intestinal epithelial cell absorption
      1. Simple diffusion (passive absorption) of free Fatty Acids, monoglycerides and water
      2. Active transport (esp. Sodium-Potassium ATPase pump) for most other molecules
    3. Portal circulation carries most absorbed energy sources to liver (except fats)
      1. Carbohydrates (the Monosaccharides Glucose, fructose and galactose)
      2. Proteins (Amino Acids and short-chain peptides)
      3. Short fatty-acids (remainder of fats are carried by Lymphatics)
    4. Lymphatics carry most absorbed fats
      1. Fats are carried by Chylomicrons via Lymphatics after intestinal absorption (see below)
    5. Malabsorption has many mechanisms
      1. Lactose Intolerance (Lactase Deficiency)
      2. Pernicious Anemia (Vitamin B12 Deficiency from Intrinsic Factor deficiency)
      3. Celiac Disease (gluten-mediated injury to intestinal villi)
  2. Carbohydrates (4 kcals/g)
    1. See Carbohydrate Metabolism
    2. carbohydrateMetabolism.png
    3. glycolysis.png
    4. glycolyticPathMolecules.png
    5. gluconeogenesis.png
    6. krebCycle.png
    7. Stores exhausted in first day of starvation
    8. Starches and Disaccharides are cleaved into Monosaccharides before intestinal absorption
      1. Mediated by Stomach acid and Salivary, intestinal and Pancreatic Enzymes (see below)
    9. Starches (Glucose polymers, cleaved by amylase into maltose)
      1. Glycogen
      2. Amylose
    10. Disaccharides
      1. Sucrose (Glucose+fructose, cleaved by sucrase)
      2. Lactose (Glucose+galactose, cleaved by lactase)
      3. Maltose (Glucose+Glucose, cleaved by maltase)
    11. Monosaccharides
      1. Glucose
      2. Fructose
      3. Galactose
  3. Protein (4 kcals/g)
    1. proteinMetabolism.png
    2. Last to be catabolized in starvation
    3. Proteins are broken down to Amino Acids and some small peptides before absorption
      1. Mediated by Stomach acid, pepsin, trypsin and peptidases (see below)
    4. Proteins (polypeptides)
      1. Long chains of peptides (which in turn are chains of Amino Acids)
    5. Peptides
      1. Short chains of Amino Acids (two or more)
    6. Amino Acids
      1. Twenty common Amino Acids occur in humans, in which 9 are essential (must be ingested)
  4. Fat (9 kcals/g)
    1. fatMetabolism.png
    2. FattyAcidDerivatives.png
    3. CholesterolDerivedSteroidHormones.png
    4. Long term energy source
    5. Intestinal Digestion and Absorption of fats
      1. Duodenal bile salts emulsify fats into small droplets
      2. Enzymatic breakdown by intestinal and pancreatic agents
        1. Lipase (intestinal, pancreatic) lyse Triglycerides to monoglycerides and free Fatty Acids
        2. Esterases lyse Cholesterol to free Cholesterol and free Fatty Acids
        3. Phospholipases lyse phospholipids to free Fatty Acids and lysophospholipids
      3. Small micelles form from fat breakdown products and bile acids
      4. Micelles carry fats to intestinal epithelial cell brush border for absorption
        1. Bile salts allow for absorption of polar lipids
      5. Bile salts are reclaimed by enterohepatic circulation
        1. Bile salts absorbed in ileum are transported back to liver via portal circulation
    6. Intestinal Epithelial cell Processing of Fats
      1. Re-forming of lipids
        1. Triglycerides re-form from free Fatty Acids and monoglycerides
        2. Cholesterol esters re-form from free Fatty Acids and Cholesterol
        3. Phospholipids re-form from free Fatty Acids and lysophospholipids
      2. Chylomicrons
        1. Form from Apoproteins combined with Triglycerides, Cholesterol to phospholipids
        2. Chylomicrons move from intestinal epithelial cells into Lymphatic System
        3. Triglycerides are carried by Chylomicrons to Muscle and fat cells
          1. Triglycerides are lysed into free Fatty Acids by capillary LipoproteinLipase
          2. Free Fatty Acids are then absorbed by Muscle and fat cells
          3. Triglycerides reform from free Fatty Acids within Muscle and fat cells (esterification)
      3. Other Lipoproteins (VLDL, LDL, HDL)
        1. Form from Cholesterol processing in the liver

IV. Physiology: Digestion Mediators

  1. Images
    1. gastrointestinalMetabolism.png
  2. Background
    1. Some promoters of Digestion at one level inhibit Digestion proximally
      1. Cholecystokinin promotes Pancreatic Enzyme and Gall Bladder function, while inhibiting gastric motility
      2. Secretin promotes hepatic bile acid secretion, but decreases Gastrin secretion (and gastric and intestinal function)
    2. Local neurologic negative feedback loops also modify intestinal function
      1. Small Bowel distention decreases gastric motility and delays gastric emptying
    3. Digestion Mechanisms
      1. Hydrolysis
        1. Addition of water in process of cleaving complex Carbohydrates, Proteins and fats
    4. Gastrointestinal mucosa is protected from acidity (bicarbonate secretion) and digestive enzymes (mucous secretion)
      1. Protective factors decreased by NSAIDs and Aspirin, emotional stress, Helicobacter Pylori
      2. Examples of dysfunction: Cystic Fibrosis, Peptic Ulcer Disease
  3. Mouth
    1. Salivary Amylase
      1. Breaks down starches (to maltose and other sugars)
  4. Stomach
    1. Background
      1. Stomach mucosa is exposed to low pH (HCl) and digestive enzymes (e.g. pepsin)
      2. Stomach mucosa is protected by mucus (from mucous neck cell) and bicarbonate (from epithelial cells)
    2. Pepsinogen
      1. Cleaves Proteins to peptides
      2. Released by chief cell
      3. Activated to pepsin, triggered by Gastrin and Stomach acid
    3. Hydrochloric Acid (HCL)
      1. Breaks down starches
      2. Aids in mineral absorption and bacterocidal activity
      3. Released by parietal cells
      4. Triggered by Vagus Nerve, Gastrin, histamine and Proteins within the Stomach
    4. Intrinsic Factor
      1. Glycoprotein released by parietal cells
      2. Intrinsic Factor deficiency occurs in Pernicious Anemia (Vitamin B12 Deficiency)
      3. Facilitates Vitamin B12 absorption from Small Intestine
        1. Triggered by Stomach and duodenal distention
        2. Suppressed by low gastric pH and intestinal fat
    5. Gastrin
      1. Stimulates HCl acid secretion by parietal cells and enzyme secretion from Pancreas
      2. Also increases peristalsis and relaxes pyloric sphincter and ileocecal valve
      3. Released from Gastrin cells in Stomach antrum
      4. Stimulated by Vagus Nerve, duodenal distention and Proteins within the Stomach
      5. Suppressed by Secretin, gastric inhibitory polypeptide and decreased Stomach pH
      6. Abnormally increased in Zollinger Ellison Syndrome (gastrin Secreting tumor)
  5. Small Intestine
    1. Background
      1. Intestinal mucosa is protected by an alkaline mucus (from Brunner's Glands)
      2. Epithelial cells in Crypts of Lieberkuhn (within intestinal villi)
        1. Release most intestinal digestive enzymes (aside from Pancreatic Enzymes)
        2. Stimulated by Vagus Nerve and direct contact with food
    2. Carbohydrate Digestion
      1. Maltase
        1. Cleaves maltose into two Glucose molecules
      2. Lactase
        1. Cleaves lactose into Glucose and galactose
      3. Sucrase
        1. Cleaves sucrose into Glucose and fructose
    3. Protein Digestion
      1. Peptidases
        1. Cleaves peptides into Amino Acids
      2. Enterokinase
        1. Activates trypsinogen to trypsin
        2. Activates chymotrypsinogen to chymotrypsin
        3. Activates procarboxypolypetidase to carboxypolypetidase
    4. Fat and Cholesterol Digestion
      1. Intestinal Lipase
        1. Metabolizes lipids to glycerol and Fatty Acids
      2. Intestinal esterases
        1. Metabolize Cholesterol esters to free Cholesterol and Fatty Acids
    5. Other enzymes
      1. Secretin
        1. Polypeptide (27 Amino Acids) secreted from duodenal and jejunal mucosa
        2. Functions
          1. Decreases Gastrin secretion, and gastric acid secretion
          2. Decreases intestinal motility
          3. Promotes Stomach pepsin release
          4. Promotes bile acid secretion from liver
          5. Promotes bicarbonate secretion (and water) from Pancreas
          6. Lowers Serum Glucose
        3. Factors that increase Secretin levels
          1. Vagal Nerve Stimulation
          2. Food, fat or acid within the Small Intestine
      2. Gastric inhibitory peptide (GIP)
        1. Decreases Gastrin secretion
        2. Decreases gastric emptying
      3. Cholecystokinin
        1. Polypeptide (33 Amino Acid) secreyted from the upper small intestinal mucosa
        2. Functions
          1. Decreases gastric motility
          2. Promotes Pancreatic Enzyme and bicarbonate secretion
          3. Promotes Gall Bladder contraction and sphincter of oddi relaxation (intestinal bile acid secretion)
          4. Vasodilates intestinal mucosa vessels
          5. May also mediate satiety
        3. Factors that increase Cholecystokinin levels
          1. Fatty Acids in the duodenum (some Amino Acids can also stimulate release)
          2. Vagal Nerve Stimulation
      4. Bulbogastrone
        1. Suppresses acid secretion from gastric parietal cells
  6. Pancreas
    1. Background
      1. Bicarbonate secreted by pancreatic ductule cells neutralizes Stomach acid in the duodenum
      2. In Pancreatitis, exocrine enzymes are activated while still within the Pancreas, resulting in inflammation
    2. Exocrine Cell Secreted Enzymes (vagal stimulated, as well as by cholecystokynin and Secretin)
      1. Amylase
        1. Breaks down starch to Oligosaccharides and ultimately sugars (e.g. Glucose, maltose)
      2. Trypsinogen
        1. Enterokinase (enteropeptidase) activated to trypsin
        2. Trypsin cleaves Proteins into peptides and Amino Acids
        3. Trypsin also activates Chymotrypsinogen and Procarboxypolypeptidase
      3. Chymotrypsinogen
        1. Trypsin activated to chymotrypsin
        2. Chymotrypsin is a protease (cleaves Proteins into peptides and Amino Acids)
      4. Procarboxypolypeptidase
        1. Trypsin activated to carboxypolypeptidase
        2. Carboxypolypeptidase is a protease that cleaves Proteins at their C-Terminal end
      5. Lipase (pancreatic Lipase, steapsin)
        1. Hydrolyzes Triglycerides into Fatty Acids and monoglycerides
      6. Cholesterol esterase
        1. Breaks down Cholesterol ester into free Cholesterol and Fatty Acids
      7. Phospholipase
        1. Hydrolyzes phospholipids into Fatty Acids
      8. Nuclease (nucleodepolymerase, polynucleotidase)
        1. Cleaves DNA and RNA Nucleic Acids into Nucleotides
    3. Endocrine Enzymes
      1. Insulin
        1. Secreted by pancreatic beta islet cells
        2. Promotes liver, fat and Muscle Cell update of Blood Glucose
        3. Increases Triglyceride synthesis, and glycogen synthesis (when Glucose levels are high)
        4. Increases intestinal motility
      2. Glucagon
        1. Secreted by pancreatic alpha islet cells in response to low Blood Glucose levels
        2. Stimulates glycogenolysis and Gluconeogenesis, increasing Blood Glucose concentration
        3. Stimulates lipolysis, increasing blood Fatty Acid concentration
        4. Decreases intestinal motility
      3. Somatostatin
        1. Secreted by pancreatic delta islet cells
          1. Triggered by increased Blood Glucose and Amino Acid concentrations
          2. Also secreted by the Hypothalamus with CNS effects (decreased GH, TSH, Prolactin)
        2. Inhibits Insulin and Glucagon secretion, as well as pancreatic exocrine enzyme secretion
        3. Decreases gastric acid secretion by direct action at parietal cells
          1. Also suppresses Gastrin and histamine release, which result in decreased acid secretion
        4. Decreases gastric emptying and peristalsis
  7. Liver (Hepatocytes)
    1. Bile Acids and Salts
      1. Bile acids surround ingested lipids (forming micelles) and aid in lipid intestinal aborption
        1. Bile acid emulsified fats are also more easily catalyzed by Lipase
        2. Micelles transport lipids to intestinal villi for absorption
      2. Primary bile acids are derivatives of Cholic acid and Chenodeoxycholic Acid
        1. Produced via CYP450 mediated Cholesterol metabolism
        2. Circulate through the intestinal tract and reabsorbed and reclaimed
        3. A smaller amount (600 mg) of bile acids are lost in stool and sythesized each day in the liver
    2. Bile Pigment
      1. Bilirubin and Biliverdin are breakdown products of Hemoglobin
      2. Bilirubin is conjugated in the liver and excreted into common bile duct in bile
    3. Fat-Soluble Vitamin Storage and Metabolism
      1. Vitamin A storage (Ito Cells)
      2. Vitamin D3 metabolism to Calcidiol via 25-hydroxylation in hepatic CYP450 system
      3. Vitamin E (esp. Alpha-tocopherol) metabolism to VDRL and HDL
      4. Vitamin K dependent gamma-glutamyl carboxylase metabolism of Vitamin 2, 7, 9, 10 and Proteins C, S
    4. Drug Metabolism and Detoxification
      1. Cytochrome P450 mediated Drug Metabolism (oxidation, reduction and hydrolysis)
      2. Drug conjugation for excretion
  8. Gallbladder
    1. Stores bile produced in the liver
    2. Gall Bladder contraction and release of bile acids into duodenum on ingestion of lipids
      1. Stimulated by Cholecystokinin
      2. Inhibited by vagal nerve
  9. Large Bowel
    1. Mucous and epithelial cells secrete mucus and bicarbonate
      1. Activity
        1. Lubricates and protects the colon lining
        2. Solidifies stool
        3. Neutralizes Bacterial toxins
      2. Control
        1. Triggered by direct food contact
        2. Triggered by vagal nerve stimulation
        3. Suppressed by Sympathetic System

V. Physiology: Appetite Modifiers

  1. Leptin
    1. Protein secreted from adipose tissue (Protein increases relative to adipose amount)
    2. Triggers Hypothalamus to suppress feeding
  2. Peptide YY (PYY)
    1. Peptide released from ileum and colon to decrease appetite
    2. Increases after meals, and decreases while Fasting
  3. Ghrelin
    1. Peptide released from Stomach to increase appetite
    2. Decreases after meals and increases while Fasting

VI. Anatomy: Images

  1. giQuadrantsGrayBB1034.gif Lewis (1918) Gray's Anatomy 20th ed (in public domain at Yahoo or BartleBy)
  2. giQuadrantsGrayBB1220.gif Lewis (1918) Gray's Anatomy 20th ed (in public domain at Yahoo or BartleBy)
  3. giMarginsGrayBB1223.gif Lewis (1918) Gray's Anatomy 20th ed (in public domain at Yahoo or BartleBy)
  4. giMarginsGrayBB1224.gif Lewis (1918) Gray's Anatomy 20th ed (in public domain at Yahoo or BartleBy)
  5. giMarginsGrayBB1226.gif Lewis (1918) Gray's Anatomy 20th ed (in public domain at Yahoo or BartleBy)
  6. giAbdTrasverseXsL1GrayBB1097.gif Lewis (1918) Gray's Anatomy 20th ed (in public domain at Yahoo or BartleBy)
  7. giPeritoneumUpperAbdXsGrayBB1039.gif Lewis (1918) Gray's Anatomy 20th ed (in public domain at Yahoo or BartleBy)
  8. giPeritoneumLowAbdXsGrayBB1038.gif Lewis (1918) Gray's Anatomy 20th ed (in public domain at Yahoo or BartleBy)

VII. References

  1. Goldberg (2014) Clinical Physiology, Medmasters, Miami, p. 120-31
  2. Kalra, Yetiskul, Wehrle, Tuma. (2021) Liver physiology, StatPearls, accessed 1/7/2022 online
    1. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK535438/

Images: Related links to external sites (from Bing)

Related Studies

Ontology: Abdomen (C0000726)

Definition (FMA) Subdivision of trunk proper which is demarcated from the thorax internally by the inferior surface of the sternocostal part of the diaphragm and externally by the costal margin, from the back of abdomen by the external surface of the posterior abdominal wall, from the perineum by the superior surface of the urogenital diaphragm and from the lower limbs by the inguinal folds; together with the thorax, and perineum, it constitutes the trunk proper. Examples: There is only one abdomen.
Definition (MSHCZE) Část těla, která leží mezi hrudníkem a pánví.
Definition (UWDA) Subdivision of trunk, which is demarcated from the thorax internally by the inferior surface of the sternocostal part of the diaphragm and externally by the costal margin, from the pelvis by the plane of the superior pelvic aperture and from the lower limbs by the inguinal folds; together with the thorax, pelvis, and perineum, it constitutes the trunk. Examples: There is only one abdomen.
Definition (NCI_NCI-GLOSS) Having to do with the abdomen, which is the part of the body between the chest and the hips that contains the pancreas, stomach, intestines, liver, gallbladder, and other organs.
Definition (NCI) Of, or related to, the abdomen.
Definition (MSH) That portion of the body that lies between the THORAX and the PELVIS.
Definition (CSP) portion of the body that lies between the thorax and the pelvis.
Concepts Body Location or Region (T029)
MSH D000005
SnomedCT 113345001, 277112006
LNC LP35080-8, LP6990-8, MTHU001425, LA12706-0, LA4238-7
English Abdomen, Abdomens, ABDOMEN, Abdominopelvis, Abdominopelvic region, abdominopelvic regions, abdomen, abd, abdominal, abdominopelvic region, Abdomen (volume), Abdomen, NOS, Abdominal, Abdominal structure, Abdominal (qualifier value), Abdominal structure (body structure)
Swedish Buk
Czech břicho, abdomen
Finnish Vatsa
Latvian Vēderdobums
Croatian ABDOMEN
Polish Brzuch, Narządy jamy brzusznej
Norwegian Abdomen, Buk
Portuguese Abdômen, Abdome
Spanish abdomen, abdominal, abdominal (calificador), estructura abdominal (estructura corporal), estructura abdominal, Abdomen
French Abdomen, Ventre
German Abdomen
Italian Addome
Dutch Abdomen, Buik

Ontology: Cholecystokinin (C0008328)

Definition (PSY) Hormone secreted by upper intestinal mucosa on contact with gastric contents, cholecystokini; stimulates contraction of the gallbladder. Also, a neurotransmitter.
Definition (CSP) peptide secreted by the upper intestinal mucosa and also found in the central nervous system; causes gallbladder contraction, release of pancreatic exocrine (or digestive) enzymes, and affects other gastrointestinal functions; cholecystokinin may be a mediator of satiety.
Definition (MSH) A peptide, of about 33 amino acids, secreted by the upper INTESTINAL MUCOSA and also found in the central nervous system. It causes gallbladder contraction, release of pancreatic exocrine (or digestive) enzymes, and affects other gastrointestinal functions. Cholecystokinin may be the mediator of satiety.
Concepts Hormone (T125) , Amino Acid, Peptide, or Protein (T116) , Pharmacologic Substance (T121)
MSH D002766
SnomedCT 46225008, 255750006, 25085002
LNC LP15486-1, MTHU009340
English Pancreozymin, Uropancreozymin, cholecystokinin, CCK-PZ-Cholecystkin-pancrezym, pancreozymin, CCK, Cholecystikinin, Cholecystokinin [Chemical/Ingredient], cholecystokinins, cholecystokinin (CCK), cck, pancreozymin (cholecystokinin), Cholecystokinin preparation, PZ - Pancreozymin, CCK-PZ - Cholecystokinin-pancreozymin, Cholecystokinin-pancreozymin, Cholecystokinin (substance), Cholecystokinin preparation (product), Cholecystokinin preparation (substance), Cholecystokinin
French Pancréozymine, Cholécystokinine
Swedish Kolecystokinin
Czech cholecystokinin
Finnish Kolekystokiniini
Italian Uropancreozymin, Pancreozimina, Colecistochinina
Japanese パンクレオザイミン, パンクレオチミン, コレシストキニン
Spanish preparado con colecistoquinina (producto), colecistoquinina (producto), preparado con colecistoquinina, colecistoquinina (sustancia), colecistoquinina, pancreocimina, preparado de colecistoquinina (producto), preparado de colecistoquinina (sustancia), preparado de colecistoquinina, Colecistoquinina, Pancreocimina
Polish Cholecystokinina, Pankreozymina
Norwegian Kolecystokinin, Cholecystokinin
Portuguese Colecistoquinina, Colecistocinina, Pancreozimina
German Cholecystokinin, Pankreozymin

Ontology: Digestion (C0012238)

Definition (GO) The whole of the physical, chemical, and biochemical processes carried out by multicellular organisms to break down ingested nutrients into components that may be easily absorbed and directed into metabolism. [GOC:isa_complete, ISBN:0198506732]
Definition (NCI_NCI-GLOSS) The process of breaking down food into substances the body can use for energy, tissue growth, and repair.
Definition (NCI) The process or act of converting food into chemical substances that can be absorbed and assimilated.
Definition (NAN) The physical and chemical activities that convert foodstuffs into substances suitable for absorption and assimilation
Definition (CSP) process of breakdown of food for metabolism and use by the body.
Definition (MSH) The process of breakdown of food for metabolism and use by the body.
Concepts Organism Function (T040)
MSH D004063
SnomedCT 17987008, 106079008
English Digestion, Digestive, digestive system function, digestive system functions, digestions, digestion, Digestive tract function (observable entity), Digestive tract function, Digestive system functions, Digestive system function (observable entity), Digestive system function, Digestion, NOS, Digestive tract function, NOS, Digestive system function (function), Digestive tract function (function)
Spanish Digestión, función del tracto digestivo, función del tracto digestivo (entidad observable), funciones del aparato digestivo, función del aparato digestivo (entidad observable), función del aparato digestivo, función del sistema digestivo (entidad observable), función del sistema digestivo (función), función del sistema digestivo, función del tracto digestivo (función), digestión
Swedish Matsmältning
Czech digesce, trávení
Finnish Ruuansulatus
Polish Trawienie
French Digestion
German Verdauung
Italian Digestione
Dutch Digestie, Spijsvertering
Portuguese Digestão

Ontology: Gastrointestinal system (C0012240)

Definition (MSHCZE) Skupina orgánů, která se podílí na rozkladu potravin během jejich cesty tělem, a to od ÚST až po ANUS (od asimilace živin až po odstranění zbytku), trávicí systém zahrnuje GASTROINTESTINÁLNÍ TRAKT a příslušné žlázy (JÁTRA, ŽLUČOVÉ ÚSTROJÍ, SLINIVKA).
Definition (NCI_NCI-GLOSS) The organs that take in food and turn it into products that the body can use to stay healthy. Waste products the body cannot use leave the body through bowel movements. The digestive system includes the salivary glands, mouth, esophagus, stomach, liver, pancreas, gallbladder, small and large intestines, and rectum.
Definition (NCI) The system that includes the esophagus, stomach, small and large intestine, anus, liver, biliary tract, and pancreas.
Definition (NCI_CDISC) The system that includes the esophagus, stomach, small and large intestine, anus, liver, biliary tract, and pancreas. (NCI)
Definition (NAN) Excretion and expulsion of waste products from the bowel
Definition (MSH) A group of organs stretching from the MOUTH to the ANUS, serving to breakdown foods, assimilate nutrients, and eliminate waste. In humans, the digestive system includes the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT and the accessory glands (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).
Definition (CSP) system consists of the gastrointestinal tract, a tube extending from the mouth to the anus; its purpose is to break down food, prepare it for absorption and eliminate waste.
Definition (CSP) group of organs stretching from the mouth to the anus, serving to breakdown foods, assimilate nutrients, and eliminate waste; in humans, the digestive system includes the gastrointestinal tract (mouth, esophagus, stomach, intestines, anus) and the accessory glands (liver, biliary tract, pancreas), and associated hormones and secretions.
Concepts Body System (T022)
MSH D004064
SnomedCT 373871007, 86762007
LNC LP7256-3, MTHU001048
English Digestive System, Gastrointestinal system (body structure), Digestive structure (body structure), Structure of digestive system, Digestive structure, Structure of digestive system (body structure), GIS - Gastrointestinal system, Alimentary system, Systema digestorium, alimentary system, digestive systems, digestive system, gastrointestinal system, Ailmentary System, Alimentary System, GASTROINTESTINAL SYSTEM, Digestive system, Gastrointestinal system, Digestive system, NOS, Gastrointestinal System, Body System, Gastrointestinal, Gastrointestinal Body System, Gastrointestinal Organ System, Organ System, Gastrointestinal
French Appareil digestif, Système digestif
Swedish Matsmältningssystemet
Spanish estructura del aparato digestivo (estructura corporal), estructura digestiva (estructura corporal), aparato gastrointestinal (estructura corporal), estructura digestiva, estructura del aparato digestivo, Aparato Digestivo, sistema digestivo, Sistema Digestivo
Czech trávicí systém
Finnish Ruuansulatusjärjestelmä
Italian Sistema digerente, Apparato digerente
Japanese 消化腺, 胃腸系, 消化器系
Latvian Gremošanas sistēma
Polish Układ trawienny, Narząd trawienny, Układ pokarmowy
Norwegian Fordøyelsessystemet
Portuguese Aparelho Digestivo, Sistema Digestivo, Sistema Digestório
German Verdauungssystem
Dutch Maag-darmkanaal, Maag-darmsysteem, Spijsverteringskanaal, Spijsverteringssysteem, Systeem, spijsverterings-

Ontology: Gastrointestinal tract structure (C0017189)

Definition (MSHCZE) Obecně odkazuje na části trávicího systému táhnoucí se od ÚST až po ANUS, ale nezahrnuje související žlázové orgány. (JÁTRA, ŽLUČOVÉ ÚSTROJÍ, SLINIVKA) R
Definition (SCTSPA) Esófago, estómago, intestino delgado e intestino grueso considerados en conjunto como una entidad única
Definition (SCTSPA) El tracto digestivo completo, incluidos la boca, el esófago, el estómago y los intestinos
Definition (SNOMEDCT_US) Esophagus, stomach, small intestine, and large intestine together as a single entity
Definition (SNOMEDCT_US) Entire digestive tract including mouth, esophagus, stomach, and intestines
Definition (NCI_CDISC) The upper gastrointestinal (GI) tract is comprised of mouth, pharynx, esophagus and stomach while the lower GI tract consists of intestines and anus. The primary function of the GI tract is to ingest, digest, absorb and ultimately excrete food stuff. (NCI)
Definition (NCI) The upper gastrointestinal (GI) tract is comprised of mouth, pharynx, esophagus and stomach while the lower GI tract consists of intestines and anus. The primary function of the GI tract is to ingest, digest, absorb and ultimately excrete food stuff.
Definition (MSH) Generally refers to the digestive structures stretching from the MOUTH to ANUS, but does not include the accessory glandular organs (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).
Concepts Body System (T022)
MSH D041981
SnomedCT 122865005, 51289009
LNC MTHU030134
English Gastrointest tract structure, Gut, alimentary tract, digestive canal, GI tract, Gastro-intestinal system, Gastrointestinal system, alimentary canal, digestive tube, digestive tracts, gi tract, gastrointestinal (GI) tract, alimentary tracts, gastrointestinal tracts, digestive tract, gastrointestinal tract, GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT, Gastrointestinal Tract, Digestive Tracts, Digestive Tract, GI Tracts, GI Tract, Gastrointestinal Tracts, Gastrointestinal tract, Digestive tract structure (body structure), Digestive tract structure, Digestive tract, Gastrointestinal tract structure (body structure), Alimentary tract, Gastrointestinal tract structure, Alimentary tract, NOS, Digestive tract, NOS, Gastrointestinal tract, NOS, Alimentary Canal
French Tube digestif, Tractus gastro-intestinal, Voies digestives, Tractus digestif, Voies gastro-intestinales
Swedish Mag-tarmsystemet
Spanish estructura del aparato digestivo (estructura corporal), estructura del aparato digestivo, Tubo Digestivo, Aparato Gastrointestinal, conducto gastrointestinal, estructura del tracto digestivo (estructura corporal), estructura del tracto digestivo, estructura del tracto gastrointestinal (estructura corporal), estructura del tracto gastrointestinal, tubo digestivo, Tracto Digestivo, Tracto Gastrointestinal
Czech trávicí trakt, gastrointestinální trakt, GIT
Finnish Maha-suolikanava
Italian Tratto GI, Tratto digestivo, Tubo gastrointestinale, Tratto gastrointestinale
Latvian Kuņģa-zarnu trakts, Gremošanas trakts, Kuņģa un zarnu trakts
Polish Przewód pokarmowy
Japanese 胃腸管, 消化管
Norwegian Gastrointestinaltraktus, GI-traktus, Mage-tarm-kanalen, Fordøyelseskanalen
Portuguese Trato Gastrintestinal, Tubo Digestivo, Trato Digestivo, Tubo Digestório, Aparelho Gastrointestinal, Trato Digestório, Trato Gastrointestinal
German Verdauungstrakt, Gastrointestinaltrakt
Dutch Maagdarmkanaal, Spijsverteringskanaal

Ontology: Intrinsic factor (C0021918)

Definition (MSH) A glycoprotein secreted by the cells of the GASTRIC GLANDS that is required for the absorption of VITAMIN B 12 (cyanocobalamin). Deficiency of intrinsic factor leads to VITAMIN B 12 DEFICIENCY and ANEMIA, PERNICIOUS.
Definition (CSP) glycoprotein secreted by the cells of the gastric glands that is required for the absorption of Vitamin B12.
Concepts Pharmacologic Substance (T121) , Biologically Active Substance (T123) , Amino Acid, Peptide, or Protein (T116)
MSH D007437
SnomedCT 41410009
LNC LP15673-4, MTHU025064
English Factor, Intrinsic, Intrinsic Factor, Intrinsic factor, Intrinsic Factor [Chemical/Ingredient], intrinsic factors, factor intrinsic, intrinsic factor, Intrinsic Factor, Concentrate, INTRINSIC FACTOR, IF - Intrinsic factor, Intrinsic factor (substance)
Swedish Inre faktor
Czech intrinsic faktor
Finnish Sisäinen tekijä
Polish Czynnik wewnętrzny Castle'a, Czynnik wewnętrzny, Czynnik wewnątrzpochodny
Portuguese Fator Intrínseco
Spanish factor intrínseco (sustancia), factor intrínseco, Factor Intrinseco
French Facteur intrinsèque
German Intrinsic-Faktor
Italian Fattore intrinseco

Ontology: Secretin (C0036534)

Definition (NCI_NCI-GLOSS) A hormone released into the blood by cells in the inner layer of the small intestine. It is released when partly digested food moves from the stomach into the small intestine. Secretin causes the pancreas, liver, and stomach to release other substances that help digest food. Secretin may also be made in the laboratory.
Definition (CSP) strongly basic polypeptide hormone secreted by the duodenal and jejunal mucosa that activates pancreatic secretion and lowers the blood sugar level; it has a lesser stimulatory effect on bile and intestinal secretion.
Definition (MSH) A peptide hormone of about 27 amino acids from the duodenal mucosa that activates pancreatic secretion and lowers the blood sugar level. (USAN and the USP Dictionary of Drug Names, 1994, p597)
Concepts Pharmacologic Substance (T121) , Hormone (T125) , Amino Acid, Peptide, or Protein (T116)
MSH D012633
SnomedCT 68622003, 19205004
LNC LP32704-6, LP15860-7, MTHU013917
English secretin, secretin (medication), Secretin [Chemical/Ingredient], synthetic secretin, Secretin preparation, Secretin (substance), Secretin preparation (product), Secretin preparation (substance), Secretin, SECRETIN
German Secretin, Sekretin
Swedish Sekretin
Czech sekretin
Finnish Sekretiini
Japanese セクレパン, セクレチン
Spanish preparado con secretina (producto), secretina (producto), preparado con secretina, preparado de secretina (producto), preparado de secretina (sustancia), preparado de secretina, secretina (sustancia), secretina, Secretina
Polish Sekretyna
Norwegian Sekretin
French Sécrétine
Italian Secretina
Portuguese Secretina

Ontology: Peptide YY (C0070358)

Definition (CHV) a kind of hunger-controlling hormone
Definition (CHV) a kind of hunger-controlling hormone
Definition (CHV) a kind of hunger-controlling hormone
Definition (NCI) Peptide YY (97 aa, ~11 kDa) is encoded by the human PYY gene. This protein is involved in hormone signaling to regulate gastrointestinal processes.
Definition (MSH) A 36-amino acid peptide produced by the L cells of the distal small intestine and colon. Peptide YY inhibits gastric and pancreatic secretion.
Concepts Hormone (T125) , Amino Acid, Peptide, or Protein (T116)
MSH D019894
SnomedCT 80537001
LNC LP64933-2, MTHU026391
English PYY Peptide, Peptide, PYY, Peptide YY [Chemical/Ingredient], PYY hormone, peptide yy, peptide YY (PYY), Peptide Tyrosine Tyrosine, PYY-I, PYY, Peptide YY (substance), Peptide YY
French PYY (Peptide YY), Peptide YY
Swedish Peptid YY
Czech peptid PYY, peptid YY
Finnish YY-peptidi
Italian Peptide PYY, Peptide YY
Polish Peptyd PYY, Peptyd YY
Japanese ペプチドYY, PYYペプチド
Norwegian Peptid YY, Peptid tyrosin tyrosin, Peptid PYY, PYY-peptid, Nevropeptid YY
Spanish péptido YY (sustancia), péptido YY, Péptido PYY, Péptido YY
German PYY-Peptid, Peptid YY
Portuguese Peptídeo PYY, Peptídeo YY

Ontology: leptin (C0299583)

Definition (CHV) a substance produced by fat cells and involved in the regulation of appetite
Definition (CHV) a substance produced by fat cells and involved in the regulation of appetite
Definition (NCI) Leptin (167 aa, ~16 kDa) is encoded by the human LEP gene. This protein is secreted by adipocytes and plays a role in the regulation of both appetite and body fat stores.
Definition (PSY) A peptide hormone that regulates food intake and energy balance.
Definition (CSP) made in adipose cells and is important in the response to starvation and in feedback regulation of energy expenditure, food intake, and adiposity.
Definition (MSH) A 16-kDa peptide hormone secreted from WHITE ADIPOCYTES. Leptin serves as a feedback signal from fat cells to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM in regulation of food intake, energy balance, and fat storage.
Concepts Hormone (T125) , Amino Acid, Peptide, or Protein (T116)
MSH D020738
SnomedCT 414601001
LNC LP19488-3, MTHU009760
Swedish Leptin
Czech leptin, protein Ob
Finnish Leptiini
French Produit du gène Ob, Protéine Obese, Produit du gène Obese, Leptine, Protéine Ob
German Obese-Genprodukt, Ob-Genprodukt, Obese-Protein, Leptin, Ob-Protein
Italian Proteina ob, Leptina
English Gene Product, Ob, Ob Gene Product, Gene Product, Obese, Obese Gene Product, Leptin, Ob Protein, Obese Protein, Leptin [Chemical/Ingredient], leptins, Obesity Factor, leptin, Leptin (substance)
Croatian LEPTIN
Polish Białko otyłych, Leptyna
Japanese 肥満蛋白質, Ob蛋白質, レプチン
Norwegian Leptin
Portuguese Proteína Bloqueadora da Sensação de Fome, Proteína Antiobesidade, Leptina, Proteína Ob
Spanish leptina (sustancia), leptina, Leptina, Proteína Obesa, Proteína Ob

Ontology: ghrelin (C0911014)

Definition (CSP) neuropeptide hormone whose receptors are present on the cells of the anterior pituitary; stimulates the release of growth hormone affecting appetite and energy balance; its synthesis occurs in the epithelial cells lining the stomach.
Definition (MSH) A 28-amino acid, acylated, orexigenic peptide that is a ligand for GROWTH HORMONE SECRETAGOGUE RECEPTORS. Ghrelin is widely expressed but primarily in the stomach in the adults. Ghrelin acts centrally to stimulate growth hormone secretion and food intake, and peripherally to regulate energy homeostasis. Its large precursor protein, known as appetite-regulating hormone or motilin-related peptide, contains ghrelin and obestatin.
Concepts Amino Acid, Peptide, or Protein (T116) , Hormone (T125)
MSH D054439
SnomedCT 414340004
English Gherlin (substance), Ghrelin (substance), ghrelin, Ghrelin, Gherlin, Ghrelin [Chemical/Ingredient]
Spanish grelina (sustancia), grelina, ghrelina, ghrelin, gherlin (sustancia), Ghrelina, gherlin, Ghrelin, Grelina
Portuguese Grelina, Ghrelin
Finnish Greliini
French Ghréline
German Ghrelin
Italian Grelina
Japanese グレリン, モチリン関連ペプチド
Swedish Ghrelin
Czech ghrelin
Polish Grelina, Obestatyna, Peptyd związany z motyliną, Hormon regulujący łaknienie
Norwegian Ghrelin
Croatian Grelin