II. Definitions

  1. Volvulus
    1. Twisting of intestinal loop around attachment to mesentery
    2. Can occur at Stomach (Gastric Volvulus), Small Intestine, cecum, transverse colon or sigmoid colon
  2. Midgut Volvulus
    1. Associated with Intestinal Malrotation
    2. Presents in infants in 90% of cases

III. Symptoms: Midgut Volvulus (infants and children)

  1. Infants
    1. Bilious Emesis
    2. Sudden onset of Abdominal Pain
  2. Older children
    1. Chronic intermittent Vomiting and abdominal cramping
    2. Failure to Thrive
    3. Constipation
    4. Bloody Diarrhea

IV. Signs

  1. Abdominal exam may be benign
  2. Heme positive stool
    1. Late sign suggesting infarcted bowel

V. Differential Diagnosis

  1. See Abdominal Pain Causes

VI. Imaging

  1. Acute Midgut Volvulus (children): Abdominal Xray
    1. Often non-specific
    2. Dilated Stomach and proximal duodenum with intervening pylorus (Double Bubble Sign)
      1. Double-Bubble is also seen in duodenal atresia (typically diagnosed in newborn nursery)

VII. Complications

  1. Intestinal infarction (high mortality)

VIII. Management

  1. Emergent surgical management
    1. Mesenteric Infarction and necrosis starts within first 3 hours of onset

IX. Resources

  1. Hebra (2012) Intestinal Volvulus, Medscape

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Ontology: Congenital malrotation of intestine (C0221210)

Definition (NCI) A congenital abnormality in which the intestine is abnormally rotated (twisted). It may result in intestinal obstruction.
Concepts Congenital Abnormality (T019)
MSH C562456
SnomedCT 29980002, 204756000, 48641006
English Incomplete rotation intestine, Volvulus neonatorum, Volvulus of midgut, VOLVULUS OF MIDGUT, Malrotation of the gut, Malrotation of gut, intestinal malrotation, intestinal malrotation (diagnosis), Gut malrotation, Congenital malrotation of intestine, congenital malrotation, intestine malrotation, midgut volvulus, intestines malrotation, volvulus neonatorum, malrotation intestine, Intestinal Malrotation, Volvulus Of Midgut, Malrotation of bowel, Congenital Malrotation of Intestine, Malrotation of intestine, Incomplete rotation of intestine, Congenital malrotation (morphologic abnormality), Congenital malrotation of intestine (disorder), Congenital malrotation, bowel; malrotation, malrotation; bowel, Congenital malrotation, NOS, Intestinal malrotation
Dutch malrotatie van darmen, darm; malrotatie, malrotatie; darm
French Anomalie de la rotation intestinale
Italian Malrotazione intestinale
Portuguese Má rotação intestinal
Spanish Malrotación intestinal, malrotación congénita del intestino (trastorno), malrotación congénita del intestino, rotación anómala congénita de intestino (trastorno), rotación anómala congénita de intestino, rotación patológica de origen congénito (anomalía morfológica), rotación patológica de origen congénito
Japanese 腸回転異常, チョウカイテンイジョウ
Czech Abnormální rotace sttřev
Hungarian Intestinalis malrotatio
German Malrotation

Ontology: Volvulus of the small bowel (C0238199)

Concepts Pathologic Function (T046)
SnomedCT 197058003
Dutch volvulus van dunne darm
French Volvulus de l'intestin grêle
German Volvulus des Duenndarms
Italian Volvolo dell'intestino tenue
Portuguese Vólvulo do intestino delgado
Spanish Vólvulo de intestino delgado, vólvulo del intestino delgado (trastorno), vólvulo del intestino delgado
Japanese 小腸捻転, ショウチョウネンテン
English small intestine volvulus, small intestine volvulus (diagnosis), small bowel volvulus, volvulus of the small bowel, Volvulus of small intestine, Volvulus of the small bowel, Volvulus of the small bowel (disorder), Volvulus of small bowel
Czech Volvulus tenkého střeva
Hungarian Vékonybél volvulusa

Ontology: Volvulus of duodenum (C0267354)

Concepts Disease or Syndrome (T047)
ICD10 K31.5
SnomedCT 79812002
English duodenal volvulus, duodenal volvulus (diagnosis), Volvulus of duodenum, Duodenal volvulus, Volvulus of duodenum (disorder)
Spanish vólvulo de duodeno (trastorno), vólvulo de duodeno

Ontology: Congenital volvulus (C0345252)

Concepts Congenital Abnormality (T019)
SnomedCT 204768009, 253786009
English congenital volvulus, congenital volvulus (diagnosis), Congenital volvulus, Congenital volvulus (disorder), congenital; volvulus, volvulus; congenital
Dutch congenitaal; volvulus, volvulus; congenitaal
Spanish vólvulo congénito (trastorno), vólvulo congénito