II. Causes: Primary Esophageal Causes of Dysphagia or Pain

  1. Esophageal Dysmotility
    1. Decreased or inactive esophageal contractility
      1. Esophageal Achalasia
    2. Increased esophageal contractility
      1. Esophageal Spasm
      2. Hypercontractile Esophagus ("Jackhammer Esophagus")
  2. Functional esophageal disorders
    1. Acid hypersensitivity
    2. Functional Dysphagia
  3. Esophagitis
    1. Gastroesophageal Reflux
    2. Eosinophilic Esophagitis
    3. Pill Esophagitis
    4. Infectious Esophagitis (esp. HIV or immunocompromised state)
      1. Candida Esophagitis
      2. Herpes Simplex Virus Esophagitis
      3. Cytomegalovirus
  4. Esophageal Structural Disorders
    1. Esophageal Ring or Schatzki Ring
    2. Esophageal Stricture (e.g. erosive esophagitis related)
    3. Esophageal Foreign Body
    4. Thoracic malignancy
      1. Gastric Cancer
      2. Mediastinal Mass
      3. Esophageal Cancer
        1. Esophageal Adenocarcinoma
        2. Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma
    5. Vascular Ring Abnormality
      1. Dysphagia lusoria (aberrant right subclavian artery)
      2. Enlarged left atrium
      3. Enlarged Thoracic Aorta
  5. Medications and Other Causes of Decreased Lower Esophageal Sphincter (LES) Pressure
    1. See Causes of Decreased Lower Esophageal Sphincter Pressure
    2. Smooth muscle relaxants
      1. Nitrates
      2. Anticholinergics
      3. Opioids
      4. Benzodiazepines
      5. Calcium Channel Blockers
      6. Tricyclic Antidepressants
    3. Systemic Sclerosis (Scleroderma)
    4. Diabetes Mellitus
      1. See Gastrointestinal Manifestations of Diabetes Mellitus
      2. More common with increasing duration of Diabetes Mellitus (regardless of type)
  6. Miscellaneous Causes
    1. Cerebrovascular Accident (CVA)
    2. Electrolyte disturbance
      1. Hypocalcemia

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Related Studies

Ontology: Esophageal Dysphagia (C0267072)

Definition (NCI) Difficulty in swallowing due to an abnormality in the esophagus.
Concepts Disease or Syndrome (T047)
MSH D003680
SnomedCT 40890009
French Dysphagie oesophagienne
English esophageal dysphagia, oesophageal dysphagia, Esophageal dysphagia, Oesophageal dysphagia, Esophageal dysphagia (disorder), Dysphagia, Esophageal, Esophageal Dysphagia
Czech ezofageální dysfagie
Norwegian Dysfagi som skyldes forstyrrelser i spiserøret
Spanish disfagia esofágica (trastorno), disfagia esofágica