II. Epidemiology

  1. Dysphagia or odynophagia occurs in 40-50% HIV patients

III. Causes

  1. Candida most frequent pathogen (50-70% of cases)
  2. Viral (30% of cases)
    1. Herpes Simplex Virus
    2. Cytomegalovirus Infection
  3. Polymicrobial: 20-25% cases
  4. Aphthous Ulcer or pill-induced ulcers (less frequent)

IV. Signs

  1. Mucosal Plaques, erosions or ulcerations
  2. External compression from nodes or masses
  3. Oral Thrush
    1. Indicator (70-80%) for esophageal involvement
    2. Oral Thrush seen in 62% of Esophageal Candidiasis

V. Diagnosis: Endoscopy

  1. Biopsy and brushings
  2. Culture for virus, Mycobacterium, and fungus

VI. Management

  1. Anti-Candida treatment can be tried
  2. Failure to respond in 24-48 hours requires endoscopy

Images: Related links to external sites (from Bing)

Related Studies