II. Physiology

  1. General
    1. Somatostatin is a 14-Amino Acid peptide
    2. Cyclic tetradecapeptide
  2. Hypothalamic Somatostatin
    1. Secreted by the Hypothalamus median eminence
    2. CNS effects
      1. Decreased Growth Hormone secretion
      2. Decreased Thyroid Simulating Hormone secretion
      3. Decreased Prolactin secretion
  3. Pancreatic Somatostatin
    1. Secreted by pancreatic delta islet cells
      1. Triggered by increased Blood Glucose and Amino Acid concentrations
    2. Inhibits Insulin and Glucagon secretion, as well as pancreatic exocrine enzyme secretion
    3. Decreases gastric acid secretion by direct action at parietal cells
      1. Also suppresses Gastrin and histamine release, which result in decreased acid secretion
    4. Inhibits intestinal absorption of Glucose and Triglyceride
    5. Decreases gastric emptying and peristalsis
    6. Inhibits renin secretion from Kidney

III. Pathophysiology: Somatostatinoma

  1. Somatostatinoma is a rare Somatostatin-Secreting tumor derived from pancreatic delta cells
  2. Findings
    1. Diabetes Mellitus
    2. Malabsorption with steatorrhea
    3. Cholelithiasis
    4. Hyperchlorhydria
    5. Weight loss

IV. Preparations: Synthetic Somatostatins

  1. Octreotide (Sandostatin)
    1. Synthetic cyclic octapeptide with activity similar to Somatostatin
    2. Indicated in Bleeding Esophageal Varices, Sulfonylurea Toxicity and several endocrine conditions

V. References

  1. Goldberg (2014) Clinical Physiology, Medmasters, Miami, p. 120-46

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Related Studies

Ontology: Somatostatin (C0037659)

Definition (NCI) Expressed primarily by human SST Gene (Somatostatin Family) in the hypothalamic median eminence and in pancreatic delta cells, secreted 116-aa 13-kDa (precursor) Somatostatin is an important cyclic tetradecapeptide regulator of endocrine and nervous system function. Somatostatin inhibits release of adenohypophyseal GH, thyrotropin, and corticotropin, pancreatic insulin and glucagon, gastric mucosal gastrin, intestinal mucosal secretin, and renal renin by binding to specific high-affinity cell surface G protein-coupled receptors expressed in a tissue-specific manner. (NCI)
Definition (CSP) any of several cyclic tetradecapeptides elaborated primarily by the median eminence of the hypothalamus and by the delta cells of the pancreatic islets; they inhibit release of a variety of hormones, including growth hormone, thyrotropin, corticotropin, insulin, glucagon, gastrin, secretin and renin.
Definition (MSH) A 14-amino acid peptide named for its ability to inhibit pituitary GROWTH HORMONE release, also called somatotropin release-inhibiting factor. It is expressed in the central and peripheral nervous systems, the gut, and other organs. SRIF can also inhibit the release of THYROID-STIMULATING HORMONE; PROLACTIN; INSULIN; and GLUCAGON besides acting as a neurotransmitter and neuromodulator. In a number of species including humans, there is an additional form of somatostatin, SRIF-28 with a 14-amino acid extension at the N-terminal.
Concepts Amino Acid, Peptide, or Protein (T116) , Hormone (T125) , Pharmacologic Substance (T121)
MSH D013004
SnomedCT 49722008, 47422003, 259352009, 57819002
LNC LP14694-1, MTHU013968
English Somatostatin, Somatostatin 14, Somatostatin-14, Somatotropin Release Inhibiting Hormone, SRIH-14, Cyclic Somatostatin, Somatostatin, Cyclic, Somatotropin Release-Inhibiting Hormone, Growth horm release inhib horm, Growth Hormone Release Inhibiting Factor, Somatotropin Release Inhibiting Factors, Panhibin, Somatotropin Release Inhibiting Factor, Somatotropin Release-Inhibiting Factor, SOMATOSTATIN 014, SOMATOTROPIN RELEASE INHIB HORMONE, GIF (growth hormone release inhibiting factor), growth hormone release inhibiting factor, somatostatin (medication), Somatostatin [Chemical/Ingredient], somatostatins, srif, somatostatin, Somatostatin-14 (substance), Somatotropin inhibiting factor preparation (product), SOMATOSTATIN, Growth hormone inhibiting factor, SRIF, Somatostatin preparation, Somatotropin inhibiting factor preparation, Somatotropin release inhibiting factor, Growth hormone release inhibiting hormone, SS - Somatostatin, Somatostatin (substance), Somatostatin preparation (product), SIF preparation, Somatostatin preparation (substance), Somatotropin inhibiting factor preparation -RETIRED-, Growth Hormone Inhibitor, SST, Growth Hormone-Inhibiting Hormone
German Somatotropin-Release-Inhibiting-Faktor, SOMATOSTATIN 014, SRIH, Somatostatin-14, Somatostatin, Zyklisches Somatostatin, Somatotropin-Release-Inhibiting-Hormon
French SRIF-14, Somatostatine-14, Somatostatine 14, Somatostatine cyclique, Hormone inhibant la libération de la somatotropine, Hormone inhibant la libération de la somatotrophine, Facteur inhibant la libération de la somatotropine, Facteur inhibant la libération de la somatotrophine, Somatostatine
Swedish Somatostatin
Czech somatostatin
Finnish Somatostatiini
Italian Somatostatina-14, Somatostatina ciclica, Ormone inibitore del rilascio di somatotropina, Fattore inibitore del rilascio di somatotropina, SRIH-14, Somatostatina
Spanish somatostatina (producto), preparado con somatostatina (producto), somatostatina, preparado con somatostatina, somatostatina-14, preparado de factor inhibidor de somatotrofina-RETIRADO-, preparado de SIF, preparado de factor inhibidor de somatotropina, preparado de factor inhibidor de somatotrofina-RETIRADO- (concepto no activo), somatostatina-14 (sustancia), factor inhibidor de la hormona del crecimiento, factor inhibidor de la liberación de STH, factor inhibidor de la liberación de somatotrofina (sustancia), factor inhibidor de la liberación de somatotrofina, preparado de somatostatina (producto), preparado de somatostatina (sustancia), preparado de somatostatina, Somatostatina, Somatostatina-14, Hormona Inhibidora de Liberación de Somatotropina, Somatostatina Cíclica
Polish Somatostatyna, Hormon hamujący uwalnianie somatotropiny
Japanese サイクリックソマトスタチン, 成長ホルモン放出抑制ホルモン, ソマトスタチン-14, ソマトスタチン, ソマトトロピン放出抑制因子, 成長ホルモン放出抑制因子
Norwegian SRIH-14, Somatostatin-14, Syklisk somatostatin, Somatostatin, Somatostatin, syklisk
Portuguese Hormônio Inibidor da Liberação de Somatotropina, Somatostatina 14, Somatostatina Cíclica, Somatostatina

Ontology: Somatostatinoma (C0037661)

Definition (MSHCZE) Nádor produkující somatostatin. Vzácný nádor gastrointestinálního traktu (nejč. pankreatu), někdy je přítomna i sekrece dalších hormonů. Klinicky bývá mírný diabetes, trávicí obtíže, cholelitiáza. Nádor má maligní charakter se sklonem k metastazování a má obv. špatnou prognózu. (cit. Velký lékařský slovník online, 2013 http://lekarske.slovniky.cz/ )
Definition (NCI) A rare, usually malignant neuroendocrine tumor arizing from delta cells. This neoplasm produces large amounts of somatostatin, which may result in a syndrome characterized by diarrhea, steatorrhea, weight loss, and gastric hyposecretion. Sixty percent are found in the pancreas and 40% in the duodenum or jejunum. The peak incidence occurs between 40 and 60 years of age; women are affected more than men by 2:1.
Definition (MSH) A SOMATOSTATIN-secreting tumor derived from the pancreatic delta cells (SOMATOSTATIN-SECRETING CELLS). It is also found in the INTESTINE. Somatostatinomas are associated with DIABETES MELLITUS; CHOLELITHIASIS; STEATORRHEA; and HYPOCHLORHYDRIA. The majority of somatostatinomas have the potential for METASTASIS.
Concepts Neoplastic Process (T191)
MSH D013005
SnomedCT 128642005, 253006001
English Somatostatinomas, Somatostatinoma [Disease/Finding], somatostatinoma, Somatostatin Producing Tumor, Somatostatin-Producing Tumor, Somatostatin-Producing NET, Somatostatin-Producing Neuroendocrine Tumor, Delta cell tumor, Delta cell tumour, Somatostatin cell tumor, Somatostatin cell tumour, Somatostatinoma (disorder), Somatostatinoma (morphologic abnormality), Somatostatinoma, Delta Cell Tumor, Somatostatin Cell Tumor, Tumor of Delta Cells, Tumor of the Delta Cells
Japanese ソマトスタチノーマ, ソマトスタチノーマ
Swedish Somatostatinom
Czech somatostatinom, Somatostatinom
Finnish Somatostatinooma
Polish Somatostatinoma
Hungarian Somatostatinoma
Norwegian Deltacellesvulst, Somatostatinom
Spanish somatostatinoma (anomalía morfológica), somatostatinoma (trastorno), somatostatinoma, tumor de las células delta, tumor de las células pancreáticas alfa productoras de somatostatina, Somatostatinoma
Dutch somatostatinoom, Somatostatinoom
French Somatostatinome
German Somatostatinom
Italian Somatostatinoma
Portuguese Somatostatinoma