II. Definitions

  1. Carbohydrates
    1. Largest class of organic compounds, and contain 3 or more carbons and multiple hydroxyl groups (OH)
    2. Include starches (Glucose polymers, e.g. glycogen), Disaccharides (e.g. sucrose) and Monosaccharides (e.g. Glucose)
    3. Most Carbohydrates also contain either an aldehyde group (as with Glucose) or keto group (as with fructose)
    4. Functions include energy sources, cell signaling, structural molecules and synthesis of Amino Acid, Nucleic Acid, lipid
  2. Glycolysis (Embden-Meyerhoff Pathway, Glycolytic Pathway)
    1. glycolysis.png
    2. glycolyticPathMolecules.png
    3. Catabolic pathway to breakdown Carbohydrates (Glucose, fructose) into pyruvate, without need for oxygen
    4. Represents only a small part of the overall energy generation from Carbohydrates (2 net ATP and 1 NADH)
    5. Pyruvate may then be converted to acetyl-CoA (or, when oxygen is unavailable to Lactic Acid)
      1. Acetyl CoA enters TCA Cycle for energy generation (or is used to form Triglycerides)
    6. Triggered by Insulin, which lowers Glucose via both Glycolysis as well as increasing glycogen stores
    7. Glycolysis occurs in the cytoplasm of cells throughout the body
  3. Acetyl Coenzyme A (Acetyl CoA)
    1. Synthesized from Coenzyme A and acetic acid
    2. Acetyl CoA is substrate in the biosynthesis of Fatty Acids, sterols and Amino Acids
    3. Serves as entry point of Citric Acid Cycle
      1. Feeds it substrate from Glucose (and other Carbohydrate), Amino Acid and Fatty Acid catabolism
  4. Citric Acid Cycle (Krebs Cycle, Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle, TCA Cycle)
    1. glycolysis.png
    2. krebCycle.png
    3. Universal pathway seen across multicellular organisms, taking place in the mitochondria of humans
      1. Citric Acid Cycle does not occur in Red Blood Cells (which lack mitochondria)
    4. Generates energy from Acetyl CoA (3 NADH, 1 FADH, 1 GTP) derived primarily from Glucose
    5. Intermediate steps include oxaloacetate, isocitrate, a-Ketoglutarate, succinyl-CoA, Succinate, fumarate, malate
      1. Kreb Cycle intermediates also lead to other pathways (e.g. succinyl-CoA to heme synthesis pathways)
    6. With decreased Energy Intake or increased Energy Expenditure, Glucose reserves (e.g. glycogen) are exhausted
      1. In early starvation, Fatty Acids are catabolized to acetyl CoA (and glycerol), fueling the Krebs Cycle
      2. With longer starvation, Amino Acids are catabolized to enter the Krebs Cycle
  5. Gluconeogenesis
    1. gluconeogenesis.png
    2. Pathway forms Glucose from 3- or 4-carbon noncarbohydrate precursors (e.g. pyruvate, Amino Acids and glycerol)
    3. Process takes place in the liver (and Kidney) and is triggered when Insulin levels are low and in starvation states
    4. The same triggers for Gluconeogenesis also trigger Lipolysis and Ketogenesis
    5. 3 enzymes limit Gluconeogenesis to liver (Pyruvate carboxylase, Fructose Diphosphatase, Glucose 6-Phosphatase)
  6. Hexose Monophosphate Shunt (HMP Shunt, Pentose Shunt, Pentose Phosphate Path, Phosphogluconate Oxidative Pathway)
    1. Glucose-6P is converted to a 5 carbon sugar, Ribose-5P, over several steps that generate two NADPH and CO2
    2. NADPH is a Reducing Agent (donating H+) in cellular reactions
      1. Active throughout the body (including in RBCs, which lack mitochondria)
    3. Ribose-5P is used to generate Nucleic Acids (DNA, RNA)
      1. When Ribose-5P is in excess, it may be converted to Glyceradehyde-3P (Glycolytic Pathway)
  7. Glucuronidation
    1. Glucuronic Acid (UDP-Glucuronate) is a water soluble derivative of Glucose, synthesized in the liver
    2. In Glucuronidation, Glucuronic acid is conjugated to other molecules to facilitate their excretion in urine and bile
    3. Glucuronidation inactivates and detoxifies various substances (e.g. Bilirubin, bile acids, sex Hormones, Corticosteroids)

III. Physiology: Carbohydrates

  1. carbohydrateMetabolism.png
  2. Carbohydrates, when burned as energy, generate 4 Kcals/g, and are exhausted in first day of starvation
  3. Starches and Disaccharides are cleaved into Monosaccharides before intestinal absorption
    1. Mediated by Stomach acid and Salivary, intestinal and Pancreatic Enzymes (see below)
    2. Amylase (Saliva, Pancreas) cleaves starches into Glucose and Disaccharides in the Gastrointestinal Tract
    3. Intestinal wall enzymes cleave Disaccharides: sucrose (sucrase), lactose (lactase) and maltose (maltase)
    4. Simple Sugars (Glucose, fructose and galactose) are absorbed across the small intestinal epithelial cell walls
  4. Polysaccharides
    1. Combination of more than 10 Monosaccharides (Simple Sugars)
    2. Branched structures (glycogen, amylopectin) allow for efficient building and breakdown of chains
      1. Multiple end points allows for multiple reactions to occur in parallel, simultaneously
    3. Starches (Glucose polymers, cleaved by amylase into maltose)
      1. Amylose
        1. Unbranched chain of Glucose molecules linked by alpha 1,4
      2. Amylopectin
        1. Branched Glucose chains with the addition of alpha 1,6 links
      3. Glycogen
        1. Highly branched chains of Glucose molecules
        2. Key Glucose storage overall in humans
    4. Structural Polysaccharides
      1. Cellulose
        1. Polymer of Glucose molecules chained by beta-links
        2. Unlike the alpha-linked starches, humans cannot cleave beta-linked Glucose
          1. Cellulose is therefore passed in human stool without absorption
          2. Contrast with other animals able to digest cellulose (e.g. cows, termites)
      2. Chitin
        1. Forms the cell wall of fungi, and the exoskeleton of arthropods
      3. Pectin
        1. Alpha1,4 linked galacturonic acid polymer found in non-woody cell plant cell walls
        2. Extracted from citrus fruits, and used as a gelling agent in cooking (e.g. jams)
  5. Oligosaccharides
    1. Combination of 3 to 10 Monosaccharides (Simple Sugars)
    2. Function in cell signaling, cell adhesion and cell recognition
    3. Dietary Oligosaccharides
      1. Fructo-Oligosaccharides (chain of fructose molecules, e.g. found in vegetables)
      2. Galacto-Oligosaccharides (chain of galactose molecules, e.g. found in milk)
    4. Often a part of glycans, Glycoproteins (linked to Amino Acids) or Glycolipids (linked to lipids)
      1. See Glycolipids
      2. N-Linked Oligosaccharides (attached to asparagine)
      3. O-Linked Oligosaccharides (linked to threonine or serine)
      4. Glycoprotein
        1. Synthesis
          1. Fructose 6-P joins glutamine to form Glucosamine 6-P (amino sugar)
          2. Glucosamine 6-P may be transformed into other amino sugars
          3. Amino sugars are joined with simple Carbohydrates
        2. Functions
          1. Glycolipid components
            1. N-Acetyl Galactosamine (8 carbon amino sugar)
            2. Sialic Acids (11 carbon amino sugars)
          2. Cell membrane components
            1. Antigenic sites (including ABO Blood Type)
            2. Receptor sites
          3. Blood Proteins
            1. Some Hormones (e.g. TSH, FSH)
            2. Immunoglobulins
            3. Blood ClottingProteins
          4. Proteoglycans
            1. Contain glycosaminoglycans or mucopolysaccharides (predominant Carbohydrate components)
            2. Glycosaminoglycans are viscous or mucoid (high water consistency)
              1. Examples include hyaluronic acid, chondroitan sulfate, Heparin
  6. Disaccharides
    1. Combination of two Monosaccharides (Simple Sugars)
    2. Sucrose (Glucose+fructose, cleaved by sucrase)
    3. Lactose (Glucose+galactose, cleaved by lactase)
    4. Maltose (Glucose+Glucose, cleaved by maltase)
  7. Monosaccharides (Simple Sugars)
    1. Monosaccharides are Carbohydrates that cannot be hydrolyzed (lysed with water) to simpler sugars
      1. Trioses have 3 carbons
      2. Tetroses have 4 carbons
      3. Pentoses have 5 carbons
      4. Hexoses have 6 carbons
    2. Hexose Examples
      1. Glucose
        1. Glucose is the primary cellular fuel stored in glycogen or metabolized via Glycolysis
        2. Blood Glucose increases via intestinal absorption, gluoconeogenesis or glycogenolysis
      2. Fructose
        1. Absorbed from the intestinal tract after sucrose is cleaved into Glucose and fructose
        2. Fructose may be metabolized to a 3 carbon sugar that enters the Glycolysis pathway
        3. Also used to generate lipids (via fructose 1P, glyceraldehyde 3P, dihydroxyacetone P)
      3. Galactose
        1. Absorbed from the intestinal tract after lactose is cleaved into Glucose and galactose
        2. Galactose may be converted to Glucose-UDP and then metabolized or stored as Glucose
        3. Important role in glycans, Glycoproteins (linked to Amino Acids) or Glycolipids (linked to lipids)

IV. Physiology: Carbohydrate Metabolism

  1. See Gastrointestinal Metabolism
  2. Images
    1. gluconeogenesis.png
    2. glycolysis.png
    3. glycolyticPathMolecules.png
    4. krebCycle.png
    5. electronTransportChain.png
  3. Glycogen Storage
    1. Excess Blood Glucose is stored in glycogen
      1. Glucose is converted to Glucose 6P, Glucose 1P and then UDP Glucose
      2. UDP Glucose is then linked into amylose (non-branched) and finally glycogen (branched)
    2. Glycogen breakdown occurs when Blood Glucose levels are falling
      1. Glycogen is branched (1-6 bond) and requires a debranching enzyme during breakdown
      2. Phosphorylase cleaves off Glucose from non-branched Glucose chains into Glucose-1P
        1. Phosphorylase stops cleaving Glucose as it approaches 1-6 branches
        2. Debranching must occur next before Phosphorylase continues on the current chain
        3. In Muscle, Glucose-1P (and Glucose-6P) is trapped within the cell and utilized for Muscle energy
        4. In liver, Glucose-1P is converted to Glucose-6P, then via Glucose 6-Phosphatase to Glucose
          1. Glucose exits the liver cells, and is used systemically by cells for energy
      3. Other methods of direct glycogen breakdown
        1. Alpha-Glucosidase within Lysosomes breaks down glycogen directly to Glucose
        2. Amylase (Pancreas, Salivary Glands)
          1. Breaks down starches to maltose, which in turn is cleaved into Glucose
          2. Glucose is readily absorbed across the intestinal lining
      4. Glycogen breakdown is stimulated by Epinephrine (Muscle Cells) and Glucagon (liver cells)
        1. Both Epinephrine and Glucagon act at the cell membrane to stimulate adenylate cyclase
        2. Triggers cyclic AMP which in turn activates phosphorylase and glycogen breakdown
  4. Blood Glucose
    1. Released from hepatic stores between meals
    2. Derived from ingested Carbohydrates
      1. Postprandial Glucose >20 fold over hepatic release
  5. Insulin
    1. See Insulin
    2. General
      1. Insulin is an anabolic Hormone that is released in the fed state
        1. Involves triggers mechanisms to move Blood Glucose into storage
        2. Insulin is produced by pancreatic beta cells
        3. Insulin release is stimulated by Blood Glucose
      2. Insulin response to Glucose is linear
        1. Insulin response is based on Glucose sensitivity
        2. Glucose sensitivity depends on Ambient Glucose
          1. Normal: Rapid Insulin release with a meal
          2. Fasting: Steeper rate of Insulin release
          3. Prolonged Hyperglycemia: Flattened response
      3. Overall Insulin effects
        1. Promotes Glucose uptake by liver and Muscle and for storage as glycogen
          1. Does not effect brain Glucose uptake (Glucose freely crosses blood brain barrier)
        2. Promotes cellular uptake of Amino Acids and Protein synthesis
        3. Promotes hepatic synthesis of Fatty Acids, VLDL transport to adipose for Triglyceride storage
        4. Promotes Glycolysis for energy utilization
        5. Suppresses Gluconeogenesis
    3. Phase 1 Insulin Release
      1. Duration: 10 minutes
      2. Suppresses hepatic Glucose release
    4. Phase 2 Insulin Release
      1. Duration: 2 hours
      2. Controls mealtime Carbohydrates
    5. Basal Insulin Release
      1. Low continuous Insulin level
      2. Covers metabolic needs between meals
  6. Glucagon
    1. See Glucagon
    2. Endogenous polypeptide Hormone secreted by pancreatic alpha cells
    3. Opposite effect of Insulin
      1. While Insulin lowers Serum Glucose (glycogen storage, Glycolysis), Glucagon increases Serum Glucose
      2. However, both Insulin and Glucagon increase Amino Acid uptake from the liver
    4. Hypoglycemia effect (primary)
      1. Hypoglycemia Increases pancreatic secretion of Glucagon
      2. Glucagon stimulates Glucose release from glycogen (glycogenolysis)
      3. Glucagon also stimulates Glucose synthesis (Gluconeogenesis)
    5. Inhibitors of Glucagon release
      1. Hyperglycemia
        1. Inhibits pancreatic secretion of Glucagon
      2. GLP1 (Incretin)
        1. Secreted by Small Bowel
        2. Stimulates pancreatic beta cells and inhibits Glucagon
        3. See Incretin Mimetics (used in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus)
    6. Amino Acid Excess Effect
      1. Increases pancreatic secretion of Glucagon
      2. Glucagon stimulates liver uptake of Amino Acids
        1. Both Insulin and Glucagon increase liver uptake of Amino Acids
    7. Glucagon has similar activity to Epinephrine (in terms of Glucose Metabolism)
      1. Most active in liver (contrast with Epinephrine which is most active in Muscle)
      2. Both Epinephrine and Glucagon act at the cell membrane to stimulate adenylate cyclase
        1. Triggers cyclic AMP which in turn activates phosphorylase and glycogen breakdown
      3. Glucagon also acts at Catecholamine-independent receptors on cardiac cells
        1. Increases intracellular Calcium in cardiac cells
        2. Increases myocardial contractions
  7. Epinephrine
    1. See Epinephrine
    2. Epinephrine has alpha-adrenergic effects (esp. alpha-2) specific to metabolism
      1. Increases Serum Glucose (Gluconeogenesis, Glycogenolysis)
      2. Increases Fatty Acids (Fat cell lipolysis of Triglycerides)
      3. Similar activity to Glucagon (in terms of Glucose Metabolism)
        1. Most active in Muscle (contrast with Glucagon which is most active in the liver)
      4. Both Epinephrine and Glucagon act at the cell membrane to stimulate adenylate cyclase
        1. Triggers cyclic AMP which in turn activates phosphorylase and glycogen breakdown
    3. Most of Epinephrine's primary effects are cardiopulmonary
      1. Alpha Adrenergic Agonist Effects
        1. Vasoconstriction (increased Systemic Vascular Resistance and Blood Pressure)
        2. Increases Vital Organ Perfusion (myocardial and cerebral perfusion)
        3. Decreases Non-Vital Organ Perfusion
          1. Decreases splanchnic and intestinal perfusion
          2. Decreases renal and skin perfusion
      2. Beta Adrenergic Agonist effects (Under 0.3 ug/kg/min)
        1. Increases myocardial contractility and Heart Rate
        2. Relaxes Bronchial Smooth Muscle (bronchodilation)
  8. Growth Hormone
    1. See Growth Hormone
    2. Polypeptide produced in the acidophil cells of the anterior pituitary
    3. Hypothalamus controls release when triggered by Hypoglycemia, decreased Amino Acids
      1. Growth Hormone Releasing Hormone (GHRH) stimulates release
      2. Somatostatin inhibits release
    4. Biochemistry
      1. Liver converts Growth Hormone to Insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1) and stimulates other growth factors
      2. Growth Hormone is a precursor to Testosterone
    5. Positive Function (stimulates or promotes the following activities)
      1. Bone and cartilage growth
      2. Protein synthesis
      3. Promotes Fatty Acid use as fuel instead of Glucose
        1. Lipid catabolism to Fatty Acids (for energy source)
        2. Hyperglycemia (from decreased cell utilization of Glucose) resulting in an increase of glycogen stores
  9. Cortisol
    1. See Cortisol
    2. Cortisol is synthesized in the Adrenal Cortex, derived from Cholesterol (See Cortisol Synthesis_
    3. Cortisol secretion is stimulated by Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH) in response to stress (See Pituitary Gland)
    4. Cortisol functionality
      1. Mobilizes available energy sources (Glucose, fats, Amino Acids)
        1. Increases Serum Glucose by stimulating liver Gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis
        2. Increases serum Fatty Acids by promoting lipolysis of adipose Triglyceride stores
        3. Increases blood Amino Acids by breaking down Proteins (outside liver)
          1. Within liver, Cortisol induces Protein synthesis
      2. Antiinflammatory activity
        1. Inhibit histamine release
        2. Inhibit Lymphocyte production
        3. Stabilize MacrophageLysosomes
      3. Increases gastric acid production
  10. Incretin
    1. Group of peptides
      1. Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 (GLP-1)
      2. Glucose Dependent Insulinotropic Peptide (GIP) or Gastric inhibitory peptide
    2. Functions
      1. Triggers Insulin synthesis
      2. Inhibit Glucagon secretion
      3. Decreases gastric emptying

V. Pathophysiology

  1. Lactic Acid
    1. Generated when oxygen is unavailable to allow for Krebs Cycle related Oxidative Phosphorylation
    2. Glycolysis generates 7 net ATP/Glucose (compared with 25 for Kreb Cycle) and does not require oxygen
    3. However, Glycolysis does use NAD+ (for glyceraldehyde 3-P to 1,3P2-glycerate)
      1. NAD+ is typically replenished in the Krebs Cycle related Oxidative Phosphorylation
      2. When oxygen is unavailable, pyruvate is metabolized to Lactic Acid, regenerating NAD+
    4. Lactic Acid conversion back to Glucose (Gluconeogenesis) requires several additional steps
      1. gluconeogenesis.png
      2. Muscle Cells release generated Lactic Acid
      3. Lactic Acid is transported via systemic circulation to liver
      4. Liver cells perform Gluconeogenesis (via 3 enzymes available only in cells of the liver and Kidney)
        1. Pyruvate carboxylase
        2. Fructose Diphosphatase
        3. Glucose 6-Phosphatase

VI. Pathophysiology: Insulin

  1. Insulin excess
    1. See Hypoglcemia
    2. See Insulin Shock (Insulin Overdose, Insulin Reaction)
  2. Insulin at low levels or deficiency
    1. Causes
      1. Low Insulin due to Diabetes Mellitus
        1. In Type I Diabetes, Insulin deficiency is key
        2. In Type II Diabetes, Insulin Resistance is key initially, but later Insulin deficiency results
      2. Low Insulin as a normal physiologic response to Hypoglycemia
    2. Low Insulin effects
      1. Gluconeogenesis and Glycogenolysis results in Hyperglycemia
      2. Lipolysis (Triglyceride breakdown to Fatty Acids)
        1. Further lysed into acetyl coA to be utilized in the Kreb Cycle (TCA Cycle, Citric Acid Cycle)
        2. Other Fatty Acids are diverted to Ketogenesis (Ketone formation)
          1. Occurs in Diabetic Ketoacidosis, Starvation Ketosis, Alcoholic Ketoacidosis
        3. Fatty Acids also form excess Cholesterol, Triglycerides within VLDL with increasing atherosclerosis

VII. Pathophysiology: Type I Diabetes

  1. See Type I Diabetes Mellitus
  2. See Maturity Onset Diabetes of the Young
  3. Deficiency of Insulin, with multiple underlying mechanisms
  4. Type 1A
    1. Environmental and genetic factors
    2. HLA-DR4 association
    3. Cell mediated pancreatic beta cell destruction
  5. Type 1B (uncommon)
    1. Primary Autoimmune Condition
    2. Associated with other Autoimmune Conditions
      1. Hashimoto's Thyroiditis
      2. Grave's Disease
      3. Myasthenia Gravis
    3. HLA-DR3 association
    4. Incidence highest in 30-50 year olds
  6. Secondary Diabetes Mellitus
    1. Cystic Fibrosis

VIII. Pathophysiology: Type II Diabetes Mellitus

  1. See Type II Diabetes Mellitus
  2. Loss of Glucose sensitivity (see above)
    1. Loss of phase 1 Insulin response
    2. Insufficient phase 2 Insulin response
  3. Insulin production by beta cell
    1. First: Insulin increases to overcome Glucose toxicity
    2. Results in beta-cell exhaustion (Glucose Toxicity)
      1. Initially reversible beta cell exhaustion
      2. Permanent later as amyloid replaces beta cells
    3. Insulin levels decrease as beta cells fail
      1. Beta-cell function reduced to <50% by DM diagnosis
  4. Impaired Incretin action
    1. Incretins manage postprandial Glucose levels
      1. Incretin released from GI Tract following meals
    2. Endogenous Incretin effects
      1. Increases Glucose dependent Insulin secretion
      2. Delays gastric emptying
      3. Decreases food intake (improves satiety)
    3. Progressive Incretin reduced activity
      1. Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 (GLP-1) activity decreases
  5. Medications
    1. Increase Insulin sensitivity
      1. Metformin
      2. Thiazolidinediones
    2. Stimulate Insulin release from beta cells
      1. Meglitinides (act on phase 1 release)
      2. Sulfonylureas (act on phase 2 release)
    3. Replace Insulin
      1. See Insulin
    4. Increase Incretin levels (GLP-1)
      1. Exenatide (Byetta)
      2. Sitagliptin (Januvia)

IX. References

  1. Goldberg (2014) Clinical Physiology, Medmasters, Miami, p. 120-46
  2. Goldberg (2001) Clinical Biochemistry, Medmasters, Miami, p. 13-16
  3. Guyton and Hall (2006) Medical Physiology, 7th Ed, Elsevier Saunders, Philadelphia, p. 829-58

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Ontology: Acetyl Coenzyme A (C0001026)

Definition (NCI) The condensation product of coenzyme A and acetic acid which participates in the biosynthesis of fatty acids and sterols, in the oxidation of fatty acids and in the metabolism of many amino acids. In addition, Acetyl Coenzyme A acts as a biological acetylating agent.
Definition (MSH) Acetyl CoA participates in the biosynthesis of fatty acids and sterols, in the oxidation of fatty acids and in the metabolism of many amino acids. It also acts as a biological acetylating agent.
Definition (CSP) participates in biosynthesis of fatty acids and sterols, fatty acid oxidation, metabolism of many amino acids, and acts as a biological acetylating agent.
Concepts Biologically Active Substance (T123) , Nucleic Acid, Nucleoside, or Nucleotide (T114) , Lipid (T119)
MSH D000105
SnomedCT 129915003
English Acetyl CoA, Acetyl Coenzyme A, CoA, Acetyl, Coenzyme A, Acetyl, acetyl coA, Coenzyme A, S-acetate, acetyl coenzyme A, acetyl CoA, Acetyl Coenzyme A [Chemical/Ingredient], acetyl coenzyme, acetyl coa, acetyl coenzyme a, ACETYL COENZYME A, Acetylcoenzyme A, Acetyl coenzyme A, Acetyl coenzyme A (substance), Acetyl-CoA
Swedish Acetyl-CoA
Czech acetylkoenzym A
Finnish Asetyylikoentsyymi A
Italian Acetyl-CoA, Acetyl CoA, Acetil-coenzima A
Russian ATSETIL-KOA, ATSETILKOENZIM A, ATSETILKOFERMENT A, АЦЕТИЛ-КОA, АЦЕТИЛКОФЕРМЕНТ A, АЦЕТИЛКОЭНЗИМ A
Polish Acetylo-koenzym A
Japanese アセチル-CoA, アセチルCoA, アセチルコエンザイムA, アセチルコエンチームA, アセチル補酵素A, アセチル-コエンザイムA
Norwegian Acetyl-koenzym A, Acetyl-coenzym A, Acetyl-CoA
Portuguese Acetilcoenzima A, Acetil CoA
Spanish acetilcoenzima A (sustancia), acetilcoenzima A, Acetil CoA, Acetilcoenzima A
French Acétyl-coA, Acétyl coenzyme A, Acétyl coA
German Acetyl-CoA, Acetyl-Coenzym A

Ontology: Carbohydrates (C0007004)

Definition (MEDLINEPLUS)

Carbohydrates are one of the main types of nutrients. They are the most important source of energy for your body. Your digestive system changes carbohydrates into glucose (blood sugar). Your body uses this sugar for energy for your cells, tissues and organs. It stores any extra sugar in your liver and muscles for when it is needed.

Carbohydrates are called simple or complex, depending on their chemical structure. Simple carbohydrates include sugars found naturally in foods such as fruits, vegetables, milk, and milk products. They also include sugars added during food processing and refining. Complex carbohydrates include whole grain breads and cereals, starchy vegetables and legumes. Many of the complex carbohydrates are good sources of fiber.

For a healthy diet, limit the amount of added sugar that you eat and choose whole grains over refined grains.

Definition (NCI) The largest class of organic compounds, including starches, glycogens, cellulose, gums, and simple sugars. Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of Cn(H2O)n. (MeSH)
Definition (NCI_NCI-GLOSS) A sugar molecule. Carbohydrates can be small and simple (for example, glucose) or they can be large and complex (for example, polysaccharides such as starch, chitin or cellulose).
Definition (MSH) The largest class of organic compounds, including STARCH; GLYCOGEN; CELLULOSE; POLYSACCHARIDES; and simple MONOSACCHARIDES. Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of Cn(H2O)n.
Definition (CSP) largest class of organic compounds, including starches, glycogens, cellulose, gums, and simple sugars; carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of Cn(H2O)n.
Concepts Carbohydrate (T118)
MSH D002241
SnomedCT 259647007, 373741009, 2331003, 350544001
LNC LP18916-4, MTHU006866
English Carbohydrates, carbohydrates (medication), Sugar, Carbohydrates [Chemical/Ingredient], carbohydrate, Carbs, carbohydrates, Carbohydrate agent, Carbohydrate agent (substance), Carbohydrate, Carbohydrate product, Carbohydrate (substance), Carbohydrate product (product), Carbohydrate, NOS, Carbohydrate product (substance), CARBOHYDRATE
Swedish Kolhydrater
Czech uhlohydráty, sacharidy
Finnish Hiilihydraatit
Russian SAKHARA, UGLEVODY I GIPOGLIKEMICHESIE SREDSTVA, UGLEVODY, САХАРА, УГЛЕВОДЫ, УГЛЕВОДЫ И ГИПОГЛИКЕМИЧЕСИЕ СРЕДСТВА
Croatian UGLJIKOHIDRATI
Polish Węglowodany
Spanish agente con carbohidratos, agente con carbohidratos (sustancia), Hidratos de Carbono, Sacáridos, Glúcidos, carbohidrato (sustancia), carbohidrato, producto (producto), carbohidrato, producto (sustancia), carbohidrato, producto, carbohidrato, producto con carbohidrato (producto), producto con carbohidrato, Carbohidratos
Norwegian Karbohydrater
Portuguese Glicídios, Sacarídeos, Sacarídios, Glucídeos, Glícidos, Carbo-Hidratos, Glúcides, Glúcidos, Hidratos de Carbono, Carboidratos
French Glucides, Hydrates de carbone
German Kohlenhydrate
Italian Carboidrati

Ontology: Citric Acid Cycle (C0008858)

Definition (GO) A nearly universal metabolic pathway in which the acetyl group of acetyl coenzyme A is effectively oxidized to two CO2 and four pairs of electrons are transferred to coenzymes. The acetyl group combines with oxaloacetate to form citrate, which undergoes successive transformations to isocitrate, 2-oxoglutarate, succinyl-CoA, succinate, fumarate, malate, and oxaloacetate again, thus completing the cycle. In eukaryotes the tricarboxylic acid is confined to the mitochondria. See also glyoxylate cycle. [ISBN:0198506732]
Definition (NCI_BioC) The Krebs cycle, also called the citric acid cycle, is a fundamental metabolic pathway involving eight enzymes essential for energy production through aerobic respiration, and, like glycolysis, arose early in evolution. This pathway is also an important source of biosynthetic building blocks used in gluconeogenesis, amino acid biosynthesis, and fatty acid biosynthesis. The Krebs cycle takes place in mitochondria where it oxidizes acetyl-CoA, releasing carbon dioxide and extracting energy primarily as the reduced high-energy electron carriers NADH and FADH2. NADH and FADH2 transfer chemical energy from metabolic intermediates to the electron transport chain to create a different form of energy, a gradient of protons across the inner mitochondrial membrane. The energy of the proton gradient in turn drives synthesis of the high-energy phosphate bonds in ATP, the common energy currency of the cell used to drive a huge variety of reactions and processes. An acetyl-CoA molecule (2 carbons) enters the cycle when citrate synthase condenses it with oxaloacetate (4 carbons) to create citrate (6 carbons). One source of the acetyl-CoA that enters the Krebs cycle is the conversion of pyruvate from glycolysis to acetyl-CoA by pyruvate dehydrogenase. Acetyl-CoA is a key metabolic junction, derived not only from glycolysis but also from the oxidation of fatty acids. As the cycle proceeds, the Krebs cycle intermediates are oxidized, transferring their energy to create reduced NADH and FADH2. The oxidation of the metabolic intermediates of the pathway also releases two carbon dioxide molecules for each acetyl-CoA that enters the cycle, leaving the net carbons the same with each turn of the cycle. This carbon dioxide, along with more released by pyruvate dehydrogenase, is the source of CO2 released into the atmosphere when you breathe. The Krebs cycle, like other metabolic pathways, is tightly regulated to efficiently meet the needs of the cell and the organism. The irreversible synthesis of acetyl-CoA from pyruvate by pyruvate dehydrogenase is one important regulatory step, and is inhibited by high concentrations of ATP that indicate abundant energy. Citrate synthase, alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase and isocitrate dehydrogenase are all key regulatory steps in the cycle and are each inhibited by abundant energy in the cell, indicated through high concentrations of ATP or NADH. The activity of the Krebs cycle is closely linked to the availability of oxygen, although none of the steps in the pathway directly use oxygen. Oxygen is required for the electron transport chain to function, which recycles NADH back to NAD+ and FADH2 back to FADH, providing NAD+ and ADH required by enzymes in the Krebs cycle. If the oxygen supply to a muscle cell or a yeast cell is low, NAD+ and FADH levels fall, the Krebs cycle cannot proceed forward, and the cell must resort to fermentation to continue making ATP. Some Krebs cycle enzymes require non-protein cofactors for activity, such as thiamine, vitamin B1. Insufficient quantities of this vitamin in the diet leads to decreased activity of pyruvate dehydrogenase and alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase, and a decrease in the ability of the Krebs cycle to meet metabolic demands, causing the disease beriberi. Although the elucidation of the Krebs cycle remains one of the landmarks of biochemistry, aspects of the Krebs cycle and its enzymes are still actively researched in the modern proteomic era.
Definition (CSP) series of reactions involving oxidation of a two-carbon acetyl unit to carbon dioxide and water with the production of high-energy phosphate bonds by means of tricarboxylic acid intermediate.
Definition (MSH) A series of oxidative reactions in the breakdown of acetyl units derived from GLUCOSE; FATTY ACIDS; or AMINO ACIDS by means of tricarboxylic acid intermediates. The end products are CARBON DIOXIDE, water, and energy in the form of phosphate bonds.
Concepts Molecular Function (T044)
MSH D002952
SnomedCT 129911007, 88521006
English Citric Acid Cycle, Citric Acid Cycles, Cycle, Citric Acid, Cycle, Krebs, Cycle, Tricarboxylic Acid, Cycles, Citric Acid, Cycles, Tricarboxylic Acid, Krebs Cycle, Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle, Tricarboxylic Acid Cycles, Krebs' cycle, tricarboxylic acid cycle, TCA cycle, citric acid cycle, Krebs cycle, Krebs cycle pathway, function, Krebs cycle pathway -RETIRED-, cycles krebs, tca cycle, cycle krebs, cycle kreb, krebs cycle, acid citric cycle, kreb cycle, The Krebs Cycle, The Citric Acid Cycle, TCA Cycle, Szent-Gyorgyi-Krebs Cycle, Krebs cycle pathway (substance), Krebs cycle pathway, Citric acid cycle pathway, Krebs cycle pathway, function (observable entity), Tricarboxylic acid cycle pathway, Krebs cycle pathway (function)
Swedish Citronsyracykel
Czech Krebsův cyklus, citrátový cyklus
Portuguese Ciclo do Ácido Cítrico, Ciclo de Krebs, Ciclo do Ácido Tricarboxílico
Finnish Sitruunahappokierto
French Cycle de Krebs, Cycle des acides tricarboxyliques, Cycle de l'acide citrique
Russian TSIKL TRIKARBONOVYKH KISLOT, LIMONNOI KISLOTY TSIKL, KREBSA TSIKL, TSIKL KREBSA, КРЕБСА ЦИКЛ, ЛИМОННОЙ КИСЛОТЫ ЦИКЛ, ЦИКЛ КРЕБСА, ЦИКЛ ТРИКАРБОНОВЫХ КИСЛОТ
Italian Ciclo dell'acido tricarbossilico, Ciclo di Krebs, Ciclo dell'acido citrico
Polish Cykl kwasu cytrynowego, Cykl Krebsa
Japanese クエン酸サイクル, Krebs回路, TCA回路, くえん酸サイクル, くえん酸回路, クエン酸回路, クレブス回路, トリカルボン酸回路, 枸櫞酸サイクル
Spanish vía de ciclo de Krebs (sustancia), vía de ciclo de Krebs - RETIRADO -, vía de ciclo de Krebs - RETIRADO - (concepto no activo), vía del ciclo de Krebs, vía del ciclo del ácido cítrico (entidad observable), vía del ciclo del ácido cítrico (función), vía del ciclo del ácido cítrico, vía del ciclo del ácido tricarboxílico, Ciclo de Krebs, Ciclo del Ácido Cítrico, Ciclo del Ácido Tricarboxílico
German Citratzyklus, Krebs-Zyklus, Tricarboxylsäurezyklus
Dutch Citroenzuurcyclus, Cyclus, citroenzuur-, Krebs-cyclus

Ontology: Disaccharides (C0012611)

Definition (NCI_CRCH) A carbohydrate comprised of two monosaccharides joined by an ether bridge (covalent bonds centered by an oxygen).
Definition (CSP) oligosaccharide containing two monosaccharide units linked by a glycosidic bond.
Definition (MSH) Oligosaccharides containing two monosaccharide units linked by a glycosidic bond.
Concepts Carbohydrate (T118)
MSH D004187
SnomedCT 15472007
English Disaccharides, disaccharide, Disaccharides [Chemical/Ingredient], disaccharides, Disaccharide, Disaccharide (substance), Disaccharide, NOS
Swedish Disackarider
Czech disacharidy
Finnish Disakkaridit
Russian DISAKHARIDY, ДИСАХАРИДЫ
Croatian DISAHARIDI
Polish Dwusacharydy, Disacharydy
Norwegian Disakkarider
Spanish disacárido (sustancia), disacárido, Disacáridos
French Diholoside, Disaccharide
German Disaccharide
Italian Disaccaridi
Portuguese Dissacarídeos

Ontology: Gluconeogenesis (C0017715)

Definition (GO) The formation of glucose from noncarbohydrate precursors, such as pyruvate, amino acids and glycerol. [MetaCyc:GLUCONEO-PWY]
Definition (NCI_NCI-GLOSS) The process of making glucose (sugar) from its own breakdown products or from the breakdown products of lipids (fats) or proteins. Gluconeogenesis occurs mainly in cells of the liver or kidney.
Definition (NCI) The biosynthesis of new glucose as opposed to that generated by the metabolism of glycogen. Gluconeogenesis occurs mainly in the liver or kidneys, and involves the biosynthesis of glucose from 3-carbon or 4-carbon non-carbohydrate precursors such as amino acids or fats.
Definition (CSP) biosynthesis of glucose from 3-carbon precursors, including aminoacids (this is the basis of protein breakdown during starvation).
Definition (MSH) Biosynthesis of GLUCOSE from nonhexose or non-carbohydrate precursors, such as LACTATE; PYRUVATE; ALANINE; and GLYCEROL.
Concepts Molecular Function (T044)
MSH D005943
English Gluconeogenesis, glucose biosynthesis, glucose biosynthetic process, gluconeogenesis, Gluconeogenic Process
Swedish Glukoneogenes
Czech glukoneogeneze
Finnish Glukoneogeneesi
French Gluconéogenèse, Néoglucogenèse, Glyconéogenèse, Néoglycogenèse
Russian GLIUKONEOGENEZ, ГЛЮКОНЕОГЕНЕЗ
Croatian GLUKONEOGENEZA
Polish Glukoneogeneza
Portuguese Neoglucogênese, Gliconeogênese, Neoglicogênese, Gluconeogênese
German Gluconeogenese, Glukoneogenese
Italian Gluconeogenesi
Dutch Gluconeogenese
Spanish Gluconeogénesis

Ontology: Glycolysis (C0017952)

Definition (GO) The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of a carbohydrate into pyruvate, with the concomitant production of a small amount of ATP. Glycolysis begins with the metabolism of a carbohydrate toe generate products that can enter the pathway and ends with the production of pyruvate. Pyruvate may be converted to ethanol, lactate, or other small molecules, or fed into the TCA cycle. [GOC:bf, GOC:dph, ISBN:0201090910, ISBN:0716720094, ISBN:0879010479, Wikipedia:Glycolysis]
Definition (NCI) A series of anaerobic chemical reactions that cells utilize to produce energy. Glycolysis is a biochemical pathway in which glucose is catabolized into lactate or pyruvate via enzymatic reactions to generate ATP.
Definition (NCI_NCI-GLOSS) A process in which glucose (sugar) is partially broken down by cells in enzyme reactions that do not need oxygen. Glycolysis is one method that cells use to produce energy. When glycolysis is linked with other enzyme reactions that use oxygen, more complete breakdown of glucose is possible and more energy is produced.
Definition (CSP) called the Embden-Meyerhoff or glycolytic pathway in which glucose is anaerobically catabolized into the simpler compounds lactic acid or pyruvic acid, resulting in energy stored in the form of ATP.
Definition (MSH) A metabolic process that converts GLUCOSE into two molecules of PYRUVIC ACID through a series of enzymatic reactions. Energy generated by this process is conserved in two molecules of ATP. Glycolysis is the universal catabolic pathway for glucose, free glucose, or glucose derived from complex CARBOHYDRATES, such as GLYCOGEN and STARCH.
Definition (MSH) An old term for glycolysis. Often it is used to describe anaerobic glucose catabolism that includes the further conversion of PYRUVIC ACID to LACTIC ACID or ETHANOL.
Concepts Molecular Function (T044)
MSH D006019
SnomedCT 129909003, 50476007
English Glycolysis, Embden-Meyerhof pathway, function, Embden-Meyerhof pathway -RETIRED-, anaerobic glycolysis, glycolyse, glycolysis, Glycolytic Process, Embden Meyerhof pathway, Embden-Meyerhof pathway (substance), Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas pathway, glycolytic process, Embden-Meyerhof pathway, Embden-Meyerhof pathway, function (observable entity), Embden-Meyerhof pathway (function), Embden Meyerhof Parnas Pathway, Embden Meyerhof Pathway, Embden-Meyerhof Pathways, Embden-Meyerhof Pathway, Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas Pathway, Pathway, Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas, Pathway, Embden-Meyerhof, Pathways, Embden-Meyerhof
Swedish Glykolys
Czech glykolýza
Finnish Glykolyysi
French Voie d'Embden-Meyerhof, Voie d'Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas, Glycolyse
Russian GLIKOLIZ, ГЛИКОЛИЗ
Japanese 解糖, 解糖作用
Croatian GLIKOLIZA
Polish Glikoliza
Spanish vía de Embden - Meyerhof - RETIRADO -, vía de Embden - Meyerhof (sustancia), Glicólisis, vía de Embden - Meyerhof (entidad observable), vía de Embden - Meyerhof (función), vía de Embden - Meyerhof - RETIRADO - (concepto no activo), vía de Embden - Meyerhof, Glucólisis
Norwegian Glykolyse, Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas-stoffskifteveien
German Glycolyse
Italian Glicolisi
Dutch Glycolyse
Portuguese Glicólise

Ontology: Glycoproteins (C0017968)

Definition (NCI_NCI-GLOSS) A protein that has sugar molecules attached to it.
Definition (NCI) A conjugated protein having a carbohydrate component.
Definition (MSH) Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
Definition (CSP) ubiquitous family of proteins with covalently attached oligosaccharide side chains which impart unique properties of solubility, size, antigenicity, ligand affinity, cellular targetting, and stability.
Concepts Amino Acid, Peptide, or Protein (T116) , Carbohydrate (T118)
MSH D006023
SnomedCT 59804006
LNC LP15623-9, MTHU006266
English Glycoprotein, Glycoproteins, Glycoproteins [Chemical/Ingredient], glycoprotein, glycoproteins, Glycoprotein (substance), Glycoprotein, NOS
Swedish Glykoproteiner
Czech glykoproteiny, bikunin
Finnish Glykoproteiinit
Russian GLIKOPROTEINY, GLIKOPROTEIDY, ГЛИКОПРОТЕИДЫ, ГЛИКОПРОТЕИНЫ
Italian Glicoproteina, Glicoproteine
Croatian GLIKOPROTEINI
Latvian Not Translated[Glycoproteins]
Polish Glikoproteidy, Glikoproteiny
Japanese 糖蛋白質, グリコプロテイン, 糖タンパク質, 糖たんぱく, 糖タンパク, 糖蛋白
Norwegian Not Translated[Glycoproteins]
Spanish Glucoproteínas, glucoproteína (sustancia), glucoproteína, Glicoproteínas
French Glycoprotéines
German Glycoproteine, Glykoproteine
Portuguese Glicoproteínas

Ontology: Monosaccharides (C0026492)

Definition (NCI_CRCH) A carbohydrate which cannot be reduced to smaller units by hydrolysis; it is the simplest structural form of a carbohydrate.
Definition (MSH) Simple sugars, carbohydrates which cannot be decomposed by hydrolysis. They are colorless crystalline substances with a sweet taste and have the same general formula CnH2nOn. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Definition (CSP) simple sugar; a carbohydrate which cannot be decomposed by hydrolysis, consisting of a colorless crystalline substance having a sweet taste and the general formula n(CH2O).
Concepts Carbohydrate (T118)
MSH D009005
SnomedCT 116257004
English Monosaccharides, monosaccharide, Simple sugar, Monosaccharides [Chemical/Ingredient], simple sugars, simple sugar, monosaccharides, Monosaccharide, Monosaccharide (substance)
Swedish Monosackarider
Czech monosacharidy
Finnish Monosakkaridit
Russian MONOSAKHARIDY, МОНОСАХАРИДЫ
Polish Monosacharydy, Jednocukrowce
Croatian MONOSAHARIDI
Norwegian Not Translated[Monosaccharides]
Spanish monosacárido (sustancia), monosacárido, Monosacáridos
French Monosaccharides, Monoses, Oses
German Monosaccharide
Italian Monosaccaridi
Portuguese Monossacarídeos

Ontology: Oligosaccharides (C0028959)

Definition (NCI_CRCH) A carbohydrate comprised of three to ten monosaccharides joined by ether bridges (covalent bonds centered by an oxygen).
Definition (MSH) Carbohydrates consisting of between two (DISACCHARIDES) and ten MONOSACCHARIDES connected by either an alpha- or beta-glycosidic link. They are found throughout nature in both the free and bound form.
Definition (CSP) carbohydrate which when hydrolyzed yields a small number of monosaccharides.
Concepts Carbohydrate (T118)
MSH D009844
SnomedCT 46075000
LNC LP18038-7, MTHU003179
English Oligosaccharides, Oligosaccharides [Chemical/Ingredient], oligosaccharides, oligosaccharide, Oligosaccharide, Oligosaccharide (substance)
Swedish Oligosackarider
Czech oligosacharidy
Finnish Oligosakkaridit
Russian OLIGOSAKHARIDY, ОЛИГОСАХАРИДЫ
Croatian Not Translated[Oligosaccharides]
Polish Oligosacharydy
Norwegian Not Translated[Oligosaccharides]
Spanish oligosacárido (sustancia), oligosacárido, Oligosacáridos
French Oligoholosides, Oligosaccharides, Oligosides
German Oligosaccharide
Italian Oligosaccaridi
Portuguese Oligossacarídeos

Ontology: Pentose Phosphate Pathway (C0030892)

Definition (GO) The process in which glucose is oxidized, coupled to NADPH synthesis. Glucose 6-P is oxidized with the formation of carbon dioxide (CO2), ribulose 5-phosphate and reduced NADP; ribulose 5-P then enters a series of reactions interconverting sugar phosphates. The pentose phosphate pathway is a major source of reducing equivalents for biosynthesis reactions and is also important for the conversion of hexoses to pentoses. [ISBN:0198506732, MetaCyc:PENTOSE-P-PWY]
Definition (CSP) pathway of hexose oxidation in which glucose-6-phosphate undergoes two successive oxidations by NADP, the final one being an oxidative decarboxylation to form a pentose phosphate.
Definition (MSH) An oxidative decarboxylation process that converts GLUCOSE-6-PHOSPHATE to D-ribose-5-phosphate via 6-phosphogluconate. The pentose product is used in the biosynthesis of NUCLEIC ACIDS. The generated energy is stored in the form of NADPH. This pathway is prominent in tissues which are active in the synthesis of FATTY ACIDS and STEROIDS.
Concepts Molecular Function (T044)
MSH D010427
English Hexose Monophosphate Shunt, Hexose Monophosphate Shunts, Pathway, Pentose Phosphate, Pathway, Pentosephosphate, Pathways, Pentose Phosphate, Pathways, Pentosephosphate, Pentose Phosphate Pathways, Pentose Phosphate Shunt, Pentose Phosphate Shunts, Pentose Shunt, Pentose Shunts, Pentosephosphate Pathways, Pentosephosphate Shunt, Pentosephosphate Shunts, Shunt, Hexose Monophosphate, Shunt, Pentose, Shunt, Pentose Phosphate, Shunt, Pentosephosphate, Shunts, Hexose Monophosphate, Shunts, Pentose, Shunts, Pentose Phosphate, Shunts, Pentosephosphate, pentose-phosphate pathway, pentose phosphate shunt, pentose-phosphate shunt, hexose monophosphate pathway, hexose monophosphate shunt, pentose phosphate pathway, pentose shunt, Pentose phosphate pathway, pentosephosphate pathway, Pentose Phosphate Pathway, Pentosephosphate Pathway, Pathway, Pentose-Phosphate, Pathways, Pentose-Phosphate, Pentose-Phosphate Pathways, Pentose-Phosphate Pathway
Swedish Pentosfosfatbana
Czech pentosafosfátová dráha
Portuguese Derivação de Pentose, Via da Pentose Fosfato, Via das Pentoses Fosfato, Via das Pentoses-Fosfato, Via das Pentoses, Via da Pentose-Fosfato, Via de Pentose, Via de Pentose-Fosfato, Derivação de Pentose Fosfato, Via de Hexose Monofosfato, Via de Pentose Fosfato, Via de Pentosefosfato
Finnish Pentoosifosfaattipolku
French Cycle des pentoses phosphates, Shunt des hexoses monophosphates, Shunt des pentoses phosphates, Shunt des pentoses, Voie des pentoses phosphates, Voie du phosphogluconate
Russian PENTOZOFOSFATNYI PUT', PENTOZOFOSFATNYI SHUNT, GEKSOZOMONOFOSFATNYI SHUNT, PENTOZNYI SHUNT, ГЕКСОЗОМОНОФОСФАТНЫЙ ШУНТ, ПЕНТОЗНЫЙ ШУНТ, ПЕНТОЗОФОСФАТНЫЙ ПУТЬ, ПЕНТОЗОФОСФАТНЫЙ ШУНТ
Japanese ワールブルク・ディケンズ経路, 五炭糖リン酸経路, ペントースリン酸経路, ヘキソースりん酸分路, ヘキソース一りん酸分路, ヘキソース一りん酸経路, ペントースりん酸回路, ペントースりん酸経路, ペントースリン酸回路, ペントース燐酸経路, ペントース経路, ホスホグルコン酸経路, ヘキソース一リン酸分路
Polish Szlak pentozofosforanowy
German Hexosemonophosphat-Shunt, Pentose-Phosphat-Shunt, Pentose-Shunt, Pentosephosphat-Zyklus
Italian Via dei pentoso-fosfati
Dutch Baan, pentosefosfate, Pentosefosfate baan
Spanish Derivación de Hexosa Monofosfato, Derivación de Pentosa Fosfato, Derivación de Pentosa, Vía de Pentosa Fosfato, Vía de Pentosafosfato

Ontology: Polysaccharides (C0032594)

Definition (NCI_NCI-GLOSS) A large carbohydrate molecule. It contains many small sugar molecules that are joined chemically.
Definition (CSP) linear or branched chain structure containing many sugar molecules linked by glycosidic bonds.
Concepts Pharmacologic Substance (T121) , Carbohydrate (T118)
MSH D011134
SnomedCT 71544008
English Glycans, Polysaccharides, Polysaccharides [Chemical/Ingredient], glycans, polysaccharide, polysaccharides, glycan, Polysaccharide, Polysaccharide (substance), Polysaccharide, NOS
Swedish Polysackarider
Czech polysacharidy
Finnish Polysakkaridit
Italian Glicani, Polisaccaridi
Russian GLIKANY, POLISAKHARIDY, ГЛИКАНЫ, ПОЛИСАХАРИДЫ
Japanese グリカン, 多糖, 多糖類, ポリサッカリド
French Glycanes, Glycannes, Polyglycosides, Polyholosides, Polyosides, Polysaccharides
Croatian POLISAHARIDI
Polish Glikany, Polisacharydy, Wielocukry
Norwegian Not Translated[Polysaccharides]
Portuguese Glicanos, Polissacarídeos, Glicanas
Spanish polisacárido (sustancia), polisacárido, Glicanos, Polisacáridos
German Glycane, Polysaccharide

Ontology: Carbohydrate Metabolism (C0302820)

Definition (ICF) Functions involved in the process by which carbohydrates in the diet are stored and broken down into glucose and subsequently into carbon dioxide and water.
Definition (ICF-CY) Functions involved in the process by which carbohydrates in the diet are stored and broken down into glucose and subsequently into carbon dioxide and water.
Definition (GO) The chemical reactions and pathways involving carbohydrates, any of a group of organic compounds based of the general formula Cx(H2O)y. Includes the formation of carbohydrate derivatives by the addition of a carbohydrate residue to another molecule. [GOC:mah, ISBN:0198506732]
Definition (NCI) Processes concerned with the synthesis, breakdown, and oxidation of carbohydrates in the tissues.
Definition (CSP) sum of chemical changes that occur within the tissues of an organism consisting of anabolism (biosynthesis) and catabolism of carbohydrates; the buildup and breakdown of carbohydrates for utilization by the organism.
Definition (MSH) Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.
Concepts Molecular Function (T044)
MSH D050260
Russian УГЛЕВОДОВ МЕТАБОЛИЗМ, UGLEVODNYI OBMEN, METABOLIZM KARBOGIDRATNYI, UGLEVODOV METABOLIZM, МЕТАБОЛИЗМ КАРБОГИДРАТНЫЙ, УГЛЕВОДНЫЙ ОБМЕН
English carbohydrate metabolic process, Carbohydrate metabolism, carbohydrate metabolism, carbohydrates metabolism, metabolism carbohydrate, Carbohydrate Metabolic Process, Carbohydrates--Metabolism, Metabolism, Carbohydrates/Storage/Polysaccharides, Carbohydrate Metabolism, Metabolism, Carbohydrate
Czech sacharidy - metabolismus
Finnish Hiilihydraattiaineenvaihdunta
French Métabolisme glucidique, Métabolisme des glucides, Métabolisme hydrocarboné
Japanese 炭水化物代謝, 代謝-糖, 糖代謝, 代謝-炭水化物
Swedish Kolhydratmetabolism
Croatian Not Translated[Carbohydrate Metabolism]
Polish Metabolizm węglowodanów
Norwegian Not Translated[Carbohydrate Metabolism]
Portuguese Metabolismo do Carbo-Hidrato, Metabolismo dos Carbo-Hidratos, Metabolismo do Carboidrato, Metabolismo dos Carboidratos
German Kohlenhydratstoffwechsel, Stoffwechsel, Kohlenhydrat-
Italian Metabolismo dei carboidrati
Spanish Metabolismo de los Carbohidratos, Metabolismo de los Hidratos de Carbono

Ontology: glucose metabolism (C0596620)

Definition (GO) The chemical reactions and pathways involving glucose, the aldohexose gluco-hexose. D-glucose is dextrorotatory and is sometimes known as dextrose; it is an important source of energy for living organisms and is found free as well as combined in homo- and hetero-oligosaccharides and polysaccharides. [ISBN:0198506732]
Definition (CSP) sum of chemical changes that occur within the tissues of an organism consisting of anabolism (biosynthesis) and catabolism of glucose; the buildup and breakdown of glucose for utilization by the organism.
Concepts Molecular Function (T044)
English glucose metabolic process, cellular glucose metabolic process, glucose metabolism, Glucose Metabolism

Ontology: Incretins (C1562292)

Definition (CSP) insulinotropic peptides released by the gastrointestinal tract in response to food; stimulates insulin secretion and inhibits glucagon secretion.
Definition (MSH) Peptides which stimulate INSULIN release from the PANCREATIC BETA CELLS following oral nutrient ingestion, or postprandially.
Concepts Hormone (T125) , Amino Acid, Peptide, or Protein (T116) , Pharmacologic Substance (T121)
MSH D054795
SnomedCT 417524005
English Glucose Dependent Insulin Releasing Hormone, Insulin-Releasing Hormone, Glucose-Dependent, Hormone, Glucose-Dependent Insulin-Releasing, Glucose-Dependent Insulin-Releasing Hormone, Incretin, incretin hormone, incretin, incretins, Incretins, Incretin (substance)
Portuguese Incretinas, Hormônio Liberador de Insulina Dependente de Glucose, Efeito Incretina
Spanish Incretinas, Hormona Liberadora de Insulina Dependiente de Glucosa, Efecto Incretina, incretina (sustancia), incretina
Finnish Inkretiinit
French Gluco-incrétines, Incrétines, Incrétine, Hormones incrétines, Hormones insulinotropes
German Glukoseabhängiges insulinfreisetzendes Hormon, Inkretine, Glucoseabhängiges insulinfreisetzendes Hormon, Inkretin
Italian Incretina, Incretine
Russian ИНКРЕТИНЫ, GLIUKOZO-ZAVISIMYI INSULIN-RILIZING GORMON, INKRETINY, ГЛЮКОЗО-ЗАВИСИМЫЙ ИНСУЛИН-РИЛИЗИНГ ГОРМОН, ИНСУЛИН-ВЫСВОБОЖДАЮЩИЙ ГЛЮКОЗА-ЗАВИСИМЫЙ ГОРМОН, INSULIN-VYSVOBOZHDAIUSHCHII GLIUKOZA-ZAVISIMYI GORMON
Japanese インクレチン, 腸膵島ホルモン
Swedish Inkretiner
Czech inkretiny
Polish Inkretyny, Hormon uwalniający insulinę glukozozależną

Ontology: Glucuronidation Pathway (C1880989)

Definition (NCI) An inactivating and detoxification pathway for a variety of exogenous and endogenous molecules, including drugs, pollutants, bilirubin, androgens, estrogens, mineralocorticoids, glucocorticoids, fatty acid derivatives, retinoids and bile acids. Glucuronic acid is highly soluble in water and is often linked to poisonous substances to allow for subsequent elimination and to hormones to allow for easier transport. Also, drugs are commonly conjugated to glucuronic acid to allow for easier delivery. Excretion occurs via urine or bile.
Concepts Phenomenon or Process (T067)
English Glucuronidation Pathway, Glucuronidation