II. Background

  1. Variants below as seen on Peripheral Smear
  2. RBC Evaluation parameters
    1. RBC Color
    2. RBC Size
    3. RBC Shape
    4. RBC Contents

III. Causes: Macrocytes

IV. Causes: Hypochromic Microcytes: Defective Hemoglobin synthesis

VI. Causes: Elliptocytes (Oval Cells)

  1. Megaloblastic Anemia
  2. Myelofibrosis
  3. Refractory normoblastic Anemia
  4. Hereditary elliptocytosis
  5. Thalassemia

VIII. Causes: Dacryocytes (tear drop RBC)

  1. Extramedullary hemopoiesis
  2. Myelophthisic Anemia
  3. Severe Hemolytic Anemia
  4. Erythroleukemia

IX. Causes: Acanthocytes (Spur Cells)

  1. Abetalipoproteinemia
  2. Cirrhosis
  3. Hepatic necrosis
  4. Pyruvate kinase deficiency
  5. Uremia
  6. Infantile pyknocytosis

X. Causes: Howell-Jolly Bodies

XI. Causes: Basophilic Stippling (aggregated ribosomes)

XII. Causes: Heinz Body (Aggregates of denatured Hemoglobin)

XIII. Causes: Target Cells

XIV. Causes: Sideroblasts

  1. See Sideroblastic Anemia
  2. Nucleated RBCs
  3. Iron laden mitochondria

XV. Causes: Cabot's Ring Bodies (Nuclear remnants)

XVI. Causes: Other findings on RBC exam

XVII. References

  1. Ravel (1995) Clinical Laboratory Medicine, p. 14-16

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