II. Definitions

  1. Cytokine
    1. Derived from "cyto" (cell) and "kinesis" (movement)
    2. Glycoproteins act in inflammatory and immune response via cell to cell communication
    3. Released from cells in response to a trigger (e.g. Antigen binding) and bind and activate Target Cells
  2. Lymphokine
    1. Cytokines released from Lymphocytes
    2. Some Lymphokines are actually not produced by Lymphocytes (Cytokine is preferred term)
  3. Monokine
    1. Cytokines released from Monocytes and Macrophages
    2. Some Monokines are actually not produced by Monocytes and Macrophages (Cytokine is preferred term)

III. Physiology

  1. Cytokine-producing cell secretes Cytokine in response to trigger
  2. Cytokine regions of activity
    1. Autocrine Action
      1. Bind and act at the same cell that released the Cytokine
    2. Paracrine Action
      1. Bind and act at neighboring, local cells
    3. Endocrine Action
      1. Bind and act distant, systemic cells
  3. Cytokine function
    1. Cytokines are pleiotropic (multiple effects at different cells)
    2. Released Cytokine activity may be synergistic or antagonistic (or redundant) to other released Cytokines

IV. Types

  1. Interleukin (IL)
    1. Group of more than 30 Cytokines that are released from Leukocytes
  2. Interferon (IFN)
    1. Cytokines released from Lymphocytes, Dendritic Cells, Macrophages, fibroblasts, Natural Killer Cells and T Cells
    2. Interferon-alpha (leukocyte Interferon)
      1. Antiviral activity
      2. Class 1 MHC presentation
    3. Interferon-beta (fibroblast Interferon)
      1. Antiviral activity
      2. Class 1 MHC presentation
    4. Interferon-gamma (immune Interferon)
      1. Class 1 and 2 MHC presentation
      2. Increases Antigen Presentation
  3. Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF, cachectin)
    1. Cytokines released from Macrophages (as well as other cells)
    2. Released in response to Bacterial Infections (esp. Gram Negative Bacteria)
    3. Acts at the Hypothalamus to induce fever
    4. Acts at the liver to release acute phase reactants
    5. Induces programmed cell death (apoptosis)
    6. Mediator in Septic Shock
    7. Originally identified as mediator of tumor necrosis (animals), Chronic Wasting Disease (cows, cachectin)
  4. Colony Stimulating Factor (CSF)
    1. Cytokines produced by Bone Marrow stems cells (as well as others including T Cells and Macrophages)
    2. Stimulate differentiation of progenitor cells
      1. Erythrocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor (Erythropoietin)
      2. Megakaryocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor (Thrombopoietin)
      3. Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor (Pluripoietin)
      4. Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor
  5. Chemokines
    1. Group of more than 50 small molecule Cytokines regulating chemotaxis (inflammatory cell attraction)

VI. References

  1. Mahmoudi (2014) Immunology Made Ridiculously Simple, MedMaster, Miami, FL
  2. Guyton and Hall (2006) Medical Physiology, p. 419-50

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Related Studies

Ontology: Colony-Stimulating Factors (C0009392)

Definition (NCI) A substance that stimulates the production of blood cells. Colony-stimulating factors include granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), and promegapoietin.
Definition (NCI_NCI-GLOSS) Substances that stimulate the production of blood cells. Colony-stimulating factors include granulocyte colony-stimulating factors (also called G-CSF and filgrastim), granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factors (also called GM-CSF and sargramostim), and promegapoietin.
Definition (MSH) Glycoproteins found in a subfraction of normal mammalian plasma and urine. They stimulate the proliferation of bone marrow cells in agar cultures and the formation of colonies of granulocytes and/or macrophages. The factors include INTERLEUKIN-3; (IL-3); GRANULOCYTE COLONY-STIMULATING FACTOR; (G-CSF); MACROPHAGE COLONY-STIMULATING FACTOR; (M-CSF); and GRANULOCYTE-MACROPHAGE COLONY-STIMULATING FACTOR; (GM-CSF).
Definition (CSP) glycoprotein derived from monocytes, macrophages, or stimulated lymphocytes that are required for differentiation of stem cells into granulocyte and monocyte cell colonies.
Concepts Amino Acid, Peptide, or Protein (T116) , Biologically Active Substance (T123)
MSH D003115
SnomedCT 71764001, 108966005, 372559001
LNC LP100606-5
English Cell-Growth Inducer, Myeloid, Colony Stimulating Factor, Colony Stimulating Factors, Colony-Stimulating Factor, Colony-Stimulating Factors, Inducer, Myeloid Cell-Growth, MGI 1 Protein, MGI-1, MGI-1 Protein, Myeloid Cell Growth Inducer, Myeloid Cell-Growth Inducer, colony-stimulating factors (medication), colony-stimulating factors, Colony-Stimulating Factors [Chemical/Ingredient], colony stimulating factor, colony stimulating factor (CSF), colony stimulating factors, Colony-stimulating factor (substance), colony-stimulating factor, Colony stimulating factors, Colony stimulating factor (substance), Colony stimulating factor preparation (product), Colony stimulating factor preparation, Colony stimulating factor, Colony-stimulating factor, NOS, Colony stimulating factor preparation (substance), Colony-stimulating factor, CSF
Portuguese Fatores Estimuladores de Colônias, Fatores Estimulantes de Colônias, Indutores de Macrófagos e Granulócitos, MGI-1
Swedish Kolonistimulerande faktorer
Czech faktory stimulující kolonie
Finnish Kantasoluryhmiä stimuloiva kasvutekijä
French Protéine MGI-1, Facteurs stimulant les colonies, Facteurs de stimulation des colonies, MGI-1, CSF
Japanese コロニー形成活性化因子, マクロファージ顆粒球誘導因子, コロニー刺激因子, コロニー活性化因子
Spanish factor estimulante de colonias (producto), preparado de factor estimulante de colonias (producto), Factores Estimulantes de Colonias, preparado de factor estimulante de colonias, factor estimulante de formación de colonias, factor estimulante de formación de colonias (sustancia), factor de estimulación de formación de colonias, Inductores de Macrófagos y Granulocitos, Factores Estimuladores de Colonias, factor estimulante de colonias (sustancia), factor estimulante de colonias, preparado de factor estimulante de colonias (sustancia), MGI-1
Italian Fattore stimolante le colonie, Proteina MGI-1, Induttore la crescita delle cellule mieloidi, MGI-1, Fattori stimolanti le colonie
Croatian Not Translated[Colony-Stimulating Factors]
Polish Czynniki stymulujące kolonie, Czynniki powodujące wzrost hodowli komórkowej, CSF, Induktor wzrostu komórki szpiku, Induktor białkowy MGI, Czynnik stymulujący kolonie, Induktor granulocyt-makrofag, MGI-1
German Koloniestimulierende Faktoren, MGI-1

Ontology: Interferons (C0021747)

Definition (MSH) Proteins secreted by vertebrate cells in response to a wide variety of inducers. They confer resistance against many different viruses, inhibit proliferation of normal and malignant cells, impede multiplication of intracellular parasites, enhance macrophage and granulocyte phagocytosis, augment natural killer cell activity, and show several other immunomodulatory functions.
Definition (CSP) a group of proteins elaborated by infected host cells that protect noninfected cells from viral infection.
Concepts Pharmacologic Substance (T121) , Amino Acid, Peptide, or Protein (T116) , Immunologic Factor (T129)
MSH D007372
SnomedCT 327132009, 49327004
LNC LP16468-8, MTHU021353
English Interferon, interferons (medication), interferons, Interferons [Chemical/Ingredient], interferon, Interferons (product), Interferon (substance), IFN, Interferons, INTERFERON
Swedish Interferoner
Czech interferony
Finnish Interferonit
Japanese インターフェロン
Italian Interferone, Interferoni
Polish IFN, Interferony
Portuguese Interferonas, Interferons
Spanish interferón (sustancia), interferón, Interferones
French Interférons
German Interferone

Ontology: Interleukins (C0021764)

Definition (NCI_NCI-GLOSS) One of a group of related proteins made by leukocytes (white blood cells) and other cells in the body. ILs regulate immune responses. ILs made in the laboratory are used as biological response modifiers to boost the immune system in cancer therapy. An interleukin is a type of cytokine.
Definition (NCI) Interleukin is the generic name for a group of well-characterized cytokines that are produced by leukocytes and other cell types. They have a broad spectrum of functional activities that regulate the activities and capabilities of a wide variety of cell types. They are particularly important as members of the cytokine networks that regulate inflammatory and immune responses.
Definition (MSH) Soluble factors which stimulate growth-related activities of leukocytes as well as other cell types. They enhance cell proliferation and differentiation, DNA synthesis, secretion of other biologically active molecules and responses to immune and inflammatory stimuli.
Definition (PSY) Compounds produced by lymphocytes that regulate immune system functioning and individual cell mediated immunity.
Concepts Amino Acid, Peptide, or Protein (T116) , Immunologic Factor (T129)
MSH D007378
SnomedCT 327385005, 38476002
LNC LP30867-3
English Interleukin, interleukin (unspecified), interleukins (medication), interleukins, Interleukins [Chemical/Ingredient], interleukin, unspecified interleukin, Interleukins (product), IL, Interleukin (substance), Interleukin, NOS, Interleukins (substance), Interleukins
Swedish Interleukiner
Czech interleukiny, interleukin
Finnish Interleukiinit
Japanese インターロイキン
Italian Interleuchina, Interleuchine
Polish IL, Interleukina 14, Interleukiny
Spanish interleuquinas, interleuquinas (producto), interleucina (sustancia), interleucina, Interleucinas
French Interleukines
German Interleukine
Portuguese Interleucinas

Ontology: Lymphokines (C0024297)

Definition (NCI) A general term for soluble mediators of immune responses that are not antibodies or complement components and that are released by sensitized lymphocytes on contact with antigen.
Definition (MSH) Soluble protein factors generated by activated lymphocytes that affect other cells, primarily those involved in cellular immunity.
Definition (CSP) soluble mediators of immune responses that are not antibodies or complement components and that are released by sensitized lymphocytes on contact with antigen.
Concepts Amino Acid, Peptide, or Protein (T116) , Immunologic Factor (T129)
MSH D008222
SnomedCT 45047005
English Lymphocyte Mediators, Mediators, Lymphocyte, lymphokine, Lymphokines [Chemical/Ingredient], lymphokines, Lymphokine, Lymphokine (substance), Lymphokine, NOS, Lymphokines
Swedish Lymfokiner
Czech lymfokiny
Finnish Lymfokiinit
Italian Mediatori linfocitari, Linfochine
Polish Limfokiny
Japanese リンパ球メディエーター, リンホカイン, リンフォカイン
Spanish Linfocinas, linfoquina (sustancia), linfoquina, Linfoquinas, Mediadores de Linfocito
French Lymphokines
German Lymphokine, Lymphozyten-Mediatoren
Portuguese Linfocinas, Mediadores de Linfócito

Ontology: Monokines (C0026484)

Definition (MSH) Soluble mediators of the immune response that are neither antibodies nor complement. They are produced largely, but not exclusively, by monocytes and macrophages.
Definition (CSP) general term for soluble mediators of immune responses that are not antibodies or complement components and that are produced by mononuclear phagocytes (monocytes or macrophages).
Concepts Immunologic Factor (T129)
MSH D015846
SnomedCT 58072002
English Monokines, monokine, Monokines [Chemical/Ingredient], Monokine (substance), Monokine, Monokine, NOS
Swedish Monokiner
Czech monokiny
Finnish Monokiinit
Croatian Not Translated[Monokines]
Polish Monokiny
Spanish monoquina (sustancia), monoquina, Monocinas
French Monokines
German Monokine
Italian Monochine
Portuguese Monocinas

Ontology: Tumor Necrosis Factors (C0041368)

Definition (NCI) Family of cell surface proteins structurally related to tumor necrosis factor. They are involved in lymphocyte homeostasis by their ability to induce apoptosis.
Definition (MSH) A family of proteins that were originally identified by their ability to cause NECROSIS of NEOPLASMS. Their necrotic effect on cells is mediated through TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR RECEPTORS which induce APOPTOSIS.
Concepts Amino Acid, Peptide, or Protein (T116) , Immunologic Factor (T129)
MSH D048069
LNC LP15932-4
French Facteurs nécrosants des tumeurs, Ligands des récepteurs du TNF, Facteurs de nécrose tumorale
Swedish Tumörnekrosfaktorer
English tumor necrosis factor, Tumor Necrosis Factor Family Protein, TNF RECEPT LIGANDS, tumor necrosis factor (unspecified), TNF (unspecified), Tumor Necrosis Factors [Chemical/Ingredient], Tumor necrosis factor, tnf, tnfa, tumour necrosis factor alpha, cachectin, tumor necrosis factor (TNF), tumour necrosis factor, alpha tnf, tnf alpha, tnf-alpha, tumor necrosis factor alpha, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, TNF, Necrosis Factors, Tumor, Receptor Ligands, TNF, TNF Receptor Ligands, Tumor Necrosis Factors
Czech tumory nekrotizující faktory, faktory nekrotizující nádory, TNFs, faktory nádorové nekrózy, TNF
Finnish Tuumorinekroositekijät
Japanese TNFレセプターリガンド, 腫瘍壊死因子スーパーファミリーリガンド, TNF受容体リガンド, 腫瘍壊死因子
Italian Ligandi del recettore TNF, Fattori di necrosi tumorale
Polish Czynniki martwicy nowotworu, Czynniki martwicy guza, TNF, Czynniki nekrozy nowotworów, Czynniki martwicy nowotworów
German TNF-Rezeptor-Liganden, Tumor-Nekrose-Faktoren
Portuguese Fatores de Necrose Tumoral
Spanish Factores de Necrosis Tumoral

Ontology: cytokine (C0079189)

Definition (CHV) a kind of protein that involves in immune reaction
Definition (NCI) A class of soluble glycoproteins which act nonenzymatically through specific receptors to regulate immune responses. Cytokines are derived from both immune and non-immune cells and are intercellular mediators that differ from hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands.
Definition (NCI_NCI-GLOSS) A substance that is made by cells of the immune system. Some cytokines can boost the immune response and others can suppress it. Cytokines can also be made in the laboratory by recombinant DNA technology and used in the treatment of various diseases, including cancer.
Definition (MSH) Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
Definition (PSY) Non-antibody proteins secreted by various cell types that act as intercellular mediators.
Definition (CSP) soluble factors elaborated by cells of the immune system that act on other cells to regulate their function.
Concepts Amino Acid, Peptide, or Protein (T116) , Immunologic Factor (T129)
MSH D016207
SnomedCT 75777003
LNC LP31391-3, MTHU018469
English Cytokines, cytokine, cytokines, Cytokines [Chemical/Ingredient], Cytokine, Cytokine (substance), Cytokine, NOS
Swedish Cytokiner
Czech cytokiny
Finnish Sytokiinit
French Cytokines
Polish Cytokiny
Spanish citoquina (sustancia), citoquina, Citocinas
German Cytokine, Zytokine
Italian Citochine
Portuguese Citocinas

Ontology: chemokine (C0282554)

Definition (NCI) Chemokines constitute a superfamily of small (8-10 kDa), inducible, secreted, pro-inflammatory cytokines that are involved in a variety of immune and inflammatory responses as well as in viral infection. Chemokines act primarily as chemoattractants and activators of specific types of leukocytes. Some members of this family were initially identified on the basis of their biological activities (e.g., IL-8, GRO), others were discovered using subtractive hybridization (e.g., RANTES) or signal sequence trap (e.g., PBSF/SDF-1)11 cloning strategies. They attract and activate leukocytes and regulate diverse cellular systems and organs ranging from blood vessels to the central nervous system.
Definition (CSP) family of 8-10 KD cytokines; chemoattract leukocytes.
Definition (MSH) Class of pro-inflammatory cytokines that have the ability to attract and activate leukocytes. They can be divided into at least three structural branches: C; (CHEMOKINES, C); CC; (CHEMOKINES, CC); and CXC; (CHEMOKINES, CXC); according to variations in a shared cysteine motif.
Concepts Amino Acid, Peptide, or Protein (T116) , Immunologic Factor (T129)
MSH D018925
English Chemokines, Chemotactic Cytokines, Cytokines, Chemotactic, Intercrines, chemoattractant cytokine, chemokine, chemotactic cytokine, Chemokine, Chemokines [Chemical/Ingredient], chemokines, Homologous Chemotactic Cytokines, SIS cytokines
Swedish Kemokiner
Czech cytokiny chemotaktické, chemokiny
Finnish Kemokiinit
French Chémokines, Cytokines chimioattractantes, Chimiokines, Cytokines chimiotactiques, Intercrines
Italian Intercrine, Citochine chemiotattiche, Chemiochine, Chemochine
Polish Cytokiny chemotaktyczne, Chemokiny
Japanese インタクライン, ケモカイン, 化学走性サイトカイン
German Chemokine, Chemotaktische Zytokine, Intercrine, Zytokine, chemotaktische
Portuguese Citocinas Quimiotáticas, Intercrinas, Quimiocinas
Spanish Intercrinas, Quimiocinas, Citocinas Quimiotácticas