III. Mechanism

  1. Granulocyte Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor (GM-CSF)
    1. Endogenous Cytokine encoded by human CSF-2 Gene
    2. Modulates the production and differentiation of Granulocyte, Macrophage, Eosinophil progenitors
    3. Also stimulates additional immune function
      1. Promotes Antigen Presentation
      2. Up-regulates Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC)
      3. Increases Interleukin-2-mediated Lymphokine-activated killer cell function
      4. Augments host antitumoral Immunity
  2. Sargramostim
    1. Recombinant, synthetic agent chemically identical to endogenous human GM-CSF (except Leucine substitution at 23)
    2. Similar activity to endogenous GM-CSF

IV. Dosing

  1. See other references

V. Adverse Effects

  1. Hypersensitivity Reaction or Infusion Reaction
  2. Capillary Leak Syndrome
  3. Supraventricular Arrhythmias
    1. Increased risk in patients with history of Cardiac Arrhythmia

VI. Safety

  1. Avoid Benzyl Alcohol containing solutions in pregnancy, Lactation and infants (risk of gaping syndrome)
  2. Unknown safety in pregnancy
  3. Unknown safety in Lactation

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