II. Definitions

  1. Fragment Antigen Binding (Fab)
    1. Antibody region that recognizes and binds Antigens
  2. Fragment Crystallizable (Fc)
    1. Antibody region that interacts with Immune System components
    2. Endogenous Fc triggers Natural Killer Cells and complement cascade
    3. Synthetic monoclonal antibodies may bind Fc to toxins or radioisotopes in Chemotherapy
  3. Ligand
    1. Molecule that binds to a specific receptor
  4. Humoral Immunity
    1. Humoral Immunity (i.e. B-Cells and antibodies) targets extracellular pathogens
    2. Part of Adaptive Immunity (learned Immunity) in combination with cellular Immunity (T-Cell function)
  5. Isotype
    1. Individual Antibody groups (Immunoglobulin A, E, G, M and D)
  6. Allotope
    1. Isotype (Immunoglobulin A, E, G, M and D) variation specific to an individual
    2. Functionally insignificant changes in Antibody structure that differentiates Isotypes from one individual to another
  7. Idiotype
    1. Antigen receptor types found on Lymphocytes
    2. B Cell Idiotypes are identical to their corresponding antibodies
    3. T Cell Idiotypes vary considerably from their B Cell counterparts, but still respond to the same Antigen

III. Physiology: B-Cells

  1. Derivation
    1. Fetal Liver
    2. Bone Marrow Pluripotent Stem Cells
  2. Peripheral Migration to Secondary Lymphoid Tissue
    1. Spleen
    2. Lymph Nodes
    3. Peyer's Patches (Small Bowel)
  3. Clonal Selection Theory
    1. Immature Lymphocytes are generated from hematopoietic stem cells
      1. Surface covered in wide variety of Antigen receptors (surface antibodies) prior to sensitization
      2. Variable region of surface antibodies contain many permutations (10^12) of heavy and light chains
    2. Lymphocytes mature into inactive Lymphocytes
      1. Lymphocytes differentiate to inactive Lymphocytes, each ready to respond to a limited set of Antigens
      2. Antibodies that recognize self Antigens are inactivate and destroyed (including during fetal development)
        1. Self Tolerance is critical to preventing Autoimmune Disease
    3. Foreign Antigen is encountered
      1. B-Lymphocyte is activated and multiple clones of the reacting Lymphocyte are made
      2. Each B-Lymphocyte produces a variety of slightly different antibodies against an Antigen
        1. Contrast with identical monoclonal antibodies produced in the lab, and by lymphocytic tumors
    4. Resources
      1. Clonal Selection (Wikipedia)
        1. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Clonal_selection
      2. Generation of Antibody Diversity (Molecular Biology of the Cell)
        1. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK26860/
  4. Activation
    1. Images
      1. BCellActivation.jpg
    2. Recognition
      1. Antigen binds B-Lymphocyte Surface Receptor (BCR)
        1. Protein Antigens
          1. Primary response (IgM mediated after 5-10 days)
          2. Secondary response (highly specific, IgG mediated after another 1-3 days)
            1. More specific response via T-Helper-mediated B-memory cell proliferation
        2. CarbohydrateAntigens
          1. Limited secondary response due to lack of T-Cell (and related B-memory cell) involvement
          2. Associated with less potent and shorter duration immune response (compared with Protein)
      2. BCR binding activates B-Lymphocyte
        1. T-Cell Independent Antigen (e.g. inert Antigens) alone activate B-Cells
        2. T-Cell Dependent Antigen (e.g. microbes) require added stmulus (e.g. T Cells)
          1. Phagocytes (e.g. Macrophages) identify foreign Antigen and release Interleukin-1 (IL-1)
          2. Interleukin-1 (IL-1) stimulates T-Helper Cells
          3. T-Helper Cells release Cytokines that promote B Cell Proliferation and Differentiation
    3. B-Cell Proliferation
      1. Activated Lymphocytes proliferate
    4. B-Cell Differentiation
      1. Plasma Cells (Antibody producing cells)
        1. Survive for days to weeks in Lymph Nodes and Spleen, producing antibodies, and without replicating
      2. Memory Cells
        1. Formed in germinal centers of Lymphoid Tissue and then distribute to peripheral circulation
        2. Remain in B-Lymphocyte pool ready to respond to the same Antigen in future
        3. Future Antigen response is known as secondary immune response

IV. Physiology: Immunoglobulin

  1. Images
    1. idAntibody.jpg
  2. Immunoglobulins (or antibodies) are Y-Shaped Glycoproteins generated by Plasma Cells
  3. Immunoglobulin is composed of a 4 chain monomeric structure
    1. Two heavy chains (identical)
      1. Five heavy chain classes: M, D, E, A, and G1-4
    2. Two light chains (identical)
      1. Two light chain classes: kappa and lambda
  4. Immunoglobulin stem (Fc) is composed of 2 identical heavy chains
  5. Two Immunoglobulin Arms emanate from the stem
    1. Each arm is composed of 2 heavy chains and 2 light chains
    2. The end of each arm contains an Antigen binding site (Fab)
  6. Immunoglobulins have 2 forms
    1. Membrane bound Immunoglobulins (on surface of B-Cell)
    2. Secretory Immunoglobulin (unbound, free-floating)
      1. Monomeric antibodies exist as single Antibody molecules (IgE or IgG)
      2. Multimeric antibodies exist as multiple joined antibodies (IgA or IgM)
        1. Connected with J Chains
    3. Antibodies
      1. Immunoglobulin (Ig)

V. Types: Immunoglobulins (Isotypes)

  1. Immunoglobulin G (IgG and subclasses IgG1-4)
    1. Monomer with Molecular weight 160,000 dalton
    2. Accounts for 75% of all Antibody
    3. Serum half-life of 23 days
    4. Responsible for long lasting Immunity (secondary immune response) and Type 2 Hypersensitivity
  2. Immunoglobulin A (IgA and subclasses IgA1, IgA2)
    1. Dimer (2 Antibody molecules) when secretory Ig with Molecular weight 350,000 dalton
    2. Accounts for 10-15% of all Antibody
    3. Serum half life of 6 days
    4. Present in body secretions (e.g. tears, Saliva, milk) and responsible for mucosal Immunity
  3. Immunoglobulin M (IgM)
    1. Pentamer (5 Antibody molecules) when secretory Ig with Molecular weight 900,000 dalton
    2. Responsible for early, primary Antibody response and potent complement activator
  4. Immunoglobulin E (IgE)
    1. Long stem (Fc) monomeric Antibody with Molecular weight 180,000 dalton
    2. Fc region is bound to Eosinophils, Basophils and Mast Cells
    3. Serum half-life of 2.5 days
    4. Reacts to allergans (Type 1 Hypersensitivity) and Parasitic Infections
  5. Immunoglobulin D (IgD)
    1. Monomer with Molecular weight 160,000 dalton
    2. Serum half life of 3 days
    3. Membrane bound surface Antibody on B Lymphocytes

VI. References

  1. Bakerman (1984) ABCs of Interpretive Lab Data, p. 392
  2. Mahmoudi (2014) Immunology Made Ridiculously Simple, MedMaster, Miami, FL
  3. Guyton and Hall (2006) Medical Physiology, p. 419-50

Images: Related links to external sites (from Bing)

Related Studies

Ontology: Antibodies (C0003241)

Definition (NCI_NCI-GLOSS) A protein made by plasma cells (a type of white blood cell) in response to an antigen (a substance that causes the body to make a specific immune response). Each antibody can bind to only one specific antigen. The purpose of this binding is to help destroy the antigen. Some antibodies destroy antigens directly. Others make it easier for white blood cells to destroy the antigen.
Definition (NCI) A type of protein made by B lymphocytes in response to a foreign substance (antigen). Each antibody only binds to a specific antigen, helping to destroy the antigen directly or by assisting white blood cells to destroy the antigen.
Definition (CSP) infection-fighting protein molecule in blood or secretory fluids that tags, neutralizes, and helps destroy pathogenic microorganisms such as bacteria or viruses and toxins; they are generally known as immunoglobulins, and are made and secreted by B-lymphocytes in response to stimulation by antigens; each specific antibody binds only to the specific antigen that stimulated its production.
Definition (MSH) Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
Concepts Immunologic Factor (T129) , Amino Acid, Peptide, or Protein (T116)
MSH D000906
SnomedCT 68498002
LNC LP39213-1, LP17809-2, LP20667-9, LP17807-6, LP38951-7, LP40096-7, MTHU003502, MTHU001898, MTHU003494
English Antibodies, Antibodies [Chemical/Ingredient], antibody, antibodies, Unidentified Ab, Little NOS Ab, NOS Ab, Unidentified Antibody, not otherwise specified Antibody, Little not otherwise specified Antibody, Antibody, Antibody (substance), Antibody, NOS, Ab
Swedish Antikroppar
Czech protilátky
Finnish Vasta-aineet
Latvian Not Translated[Antibodies]
Polish Przeciwciała
Norwegian Not Translated[Antibodies]
Spanish anticuerpo (sustancia), anticuerpo, Anticuerpos
French Anticorps
German Antikörper
Italian Anticorpi
Portuguese Anticorpos

Ontology: Humoral Immunity (C0020967)

Definition (MSH) Antibody-mediated immune response. Humoral immunity is brought about by ANTIBODY FORMATION, resulting from TH2 CELLS activating B-LYMPHOCYTES, followed by COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION.
Definition (NCI) Immune processes mediated by antibodies
Definition (CSP) immunity mediated by antibodies.
Concepts Organism Function (T040)
MSH D056724
English Immunity, Humoral, humoral immunity, Humoral Immune Response, Humoral Immunity
French Immunité humorale
German Humorale Immunität, Immunität, humorale
Italian Immunità umorale
Portuguese Imunidade Humoral
Spanish Inmunidad Humoral
Czech imunita humorální, imunita protilátková
Swedish Immunitet, humoral
Polish Odporność humoralna
Norwegian Humoral immunitet

Ontology: Immunoglobulin Constant Regions (C0021008)

Definition (NCI) The portion of an antibody that is invariant within a class of immunoglobulins. It is comprised of the carboxyl terminal half of both light chains and at least three quarters of each heavy chain starting from the carboxyl terminus and excludes the variable regions of the heavy and light chains.
Definition (MSH) The domains of the immunoglobulin molecules that are invariable in their amino acid sequence within any class or subclass of immunoglobulin. They confer biological as well as structural functions to immunoglobulins. One each on both the light chains and the heavy chains comprises the C-terminus half of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN FAB FRAGMENT and two or three of them make up the rest of the heavy chains (all of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN FC FRAGMENT)
Concepts Amino Acid, Peptide, or Protein (T116) , Immunologic Factor (T129)
MSH D007127
SnomedCT 78263004, 78026000
English Constant Region, Ig, Constant Region, Immunoglobulin, Antibody constant region, Antibody C region, IG CONSTANT REGION, IG CONSTANT REGIONS, Immunoglobulin Constant Regions [Chemical/Ingredient], Antibody constant region (substance), Immunoglobulin, constant region, Immunoglobulin, constant region (substance), Immunoglobulin Constant Region, Constant Regions, Immunoglobulin, Immunoglobulin Constant Regions
Swedish Konstant del av immunglobulin
Czech imunoglobuliny - konstantní oblasti, imunoglobuliny - konstantní oblast
Finnish Immunoglobuliinin pysyvät alueet
Italian Regione costante di ig, Regione costante delle immunoglobuline, Regioni costanti delle immunoglobuline
French Régions constantes d'Ig, Régions constantes d'immunoglobulines, Régions constantes des Ig, Régions constantes des immunoglobulines
Polish Region stały immunoglobulin
Japanese 定常領域-免疫グロブリン, 免疫グロブリン不変領域, 免疫グロブリンC領域, 免疫グロブリン定常領域
Spanish región constante de un anticuerpo (sustancia), región constante de un anticuerpo, región C de un anticuerpo, inmunoglobulina, región constante (sustancia), inmunoglobulina, región constante, Región Constante de Inmunoglobulina, Regiones Constantes de Inmunoglobulina
German Immunglobulin, konstante Region
Portuguese Região Constante de Imunoglobulina, Regiões Constantes de Imunoglobulina

Ontology: Fab Immunoglobulins (C0021031)

Definition (NCI) Part of an immunoglobulin antibody that binds a specific antigen and consists of both a light chain and part of a heavy chain. By comparison, natural antibodies consist of two heavy and two light chains. An FAB (fragment antibody) offers the advantages of smaller size and lower cross-reactivity compared to the complete antibody. (NCI04)
Definition (MSH) Univalent antigen-binding fragments composed of one entire IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAIN and the amino terminal end of one of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS from the hinge region, linked to each other by disulfide bonds. Fab contains the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGIONS, which are part of the antigen-binding site, and the first IMMUNOGLOBULIN CONSTANT REGIONS. This fragment can be obtained by digestion of immunoglobulins with the proteolytic enzyme PAPAIN.
Concepts Amino Acid, Peptide, or Protein (T116) , Immunologic Factor (T129)
MSH D007140
SnomedCT 112136000
English Fab Fragments, Fab fragment, IG FAB FRAGMENT, IG FAB FRAGMENTS, IG FAB, Immunoglobulin Fab Fragments [Chemical/Ingredient], Immunoglobulin, F(ab) fragment, Immunoglobulin, F(ab) fragment (substance), Fab, Immunoglobulin, F(ab) Fragment, Antigen Binding Fragment, Fab Fragment, Fab Immunoglobulins, Immunoglobulins, Fab, Fab Fragment Immunoglobulins, Fab Fragment, Immunoglobulin, Fab Fragments, Immunoglobulin, Fab Immunoglobulin Fragments, Fragment Immunoglobulins, Fab, Immunoglobulin Fab Fragments, Immunoglobulin Fab Fragment, Immunoglobulin Fragments, Fab, Immunoglobulins, Fab Fragment
Swedish Immunglobulinfragment, Fab
Czech imunoglobuliny Fab, Fab fragmenty, imunoglobuliny - Fab fragmenty
Finnish Fab-osat
Italian Frammenti Fab, Immunoglobuline Fab
French Fragments Fab d'immunoglobuline, Fragment Fab des immunoglobulines, Fragments Fab d'Ig, Fragments Fab des Ig, Fragments Fab
Polish Fragmenty Fab immunoglobulin
Japanese 免疫グロブリン-Fab, Fabフラグメント, 免疫グロブリンFabフラグメント, Fabフラグメント-免疫グロブリン, Fab免疫グロブリン
Spanish Fragmento Fab de las Inmunoglobulinas, inmunoglobulina, fragmento F (ab) (sustancia), inmunoglobulina, fragmento F (ab), Fragmentos Fab, Fragmento Fab de Inmunoglobulinas, Fragmentos Fab de Inmunoglobulinas
German Fab-Fragmente, Fab-Immunglobuline, Immunglobuline, Fab-
Portuguese Fragmentos Fab, Fragmento Fab de Imunoglobulinas, Fragmentos Fab das Imunoglobulinas

Ontology: Immunoglobulin Fc Fragments (C0021032)

Definition (NCI) A protein product that results from the digestion of antibodies with papain and is comprised of the second and third constant regions of the antibody heavy chain.
Definition (MSH) Crystallizable fragments composed of the carboxy-terminal halves of both IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS linked to each other by disulfide bonds. Fc fragments contain the carboxy-terminal parts of the heavy chain constant regions that are responsible for the effector functions of an immunoglobulin (COMPLEMENT fixation, binding to the cell membrane via FC RECEPTORS, and placental transport). This fragment can be obtained by digestion of immunoglobulins with the proteolytic enzyme PAPAIN.
Concepts Amino Acid, Peptide, or Protein (T116) , Immunologic Factor (T129)
MSH D007141
SnomedCT 69311000
LNC LP16702-0
English Fc Fragments, Fc Immunoglobulins, IG FC FRAGMENT, IG FC, IG FC FRAGMENTS, FC IG, Fragment Crystallizable Region, Immunoglobulin Fc Fragments [Chemical/Ingredient], Fc fragment, Immunoglobulin, Fc fragment, Immunoglobulin, Fc fragment (substance), Fc Fragment, Immunoglobulin Fc, Immunoglobulins, Fc, Fc Fragment Immunoglobulins, Fc Fragment, Immunoglobulin, Fc Fragments, Immunoglobulin, Fragment Immunoglobulins, Fc, Immunoglobulin Fc Fragment, Immunoglobulins, Fc Fragment, Immunoglobulin Fc Fragments
Swedish Immunglobulinfragment, Fc
Czech imunoglobuliny - Fc fragmenty, Fc fragmenty, imunoglobuliny Fc
Finnish Fc-osat
French Fragments Fc d'Ig, Fragments Fc des Ig, Fragments Fc des immunoglobulines, Fragments Fc
Polish Łańcuch ciężki fragment fc, Fragmenty Fc immunoglobulin, Fragmenty immunoglobulin fc
Japanese 免疫グロブリン-Fc, 免疫グロブリンFcフラグメント, Fcフラグメント, Fc免疫グロブリン, 結晶性免疫グロブリン
Spanish inmunoglobulina, fragmento Fc (sustancia), inmunoglobulina, fragmento Fc, Fragmentos Fc, Inmunoglobulinas Fc, Fragmentos Fc de Inmunoglobulinas
German Fc-Fragmente, Fc-Immunglobuline, Immunglobuline, Fc-
Italian Immunoglobuline Fc
Portuguese Fragmentos Fc, Imunoglobulinas Fc, Fragmentos Fc das Imunoglobulinas

Ontology: Immunoglobulin Heavy Chains (C0021034)

Definition (NCI) A protein complex that consists of two heavy chains (gamma, alpha, delta, epsilon or mu). The larger of the two immunoglobulin chain types determines the immunoglobulin class (G, A, D, E or M, respectively). The heavy chain molecules exhibit the same structure and composition, which consists of constant, variable, and hypervariable regions.
Definition (MSH) The largest of polypeptide chains comprising immunoglobulins. They contain 450 to 600 amino acid residues per chain, and have molecular weights of 51-72 kDa.
Concepts Amino Acid, Peptide, or Protein (T116) , Immunologic Factor (T129)
MSH D007143
SnomedCT 264310000
LNC LP34728-3
English Heavy Chain Immunoglobulins, Heavy Chain, Immunoglobulin, Heavy-Chain Immunoglobulins, Immunoglobulin Heavy Chain, Immunoglobulins, Heavy Chain, HEAVY CHAIN IG, IG HEAVY CHAIN, Immunoglobin heavy chain, Immunoglobulin heavy chain (substance), Immunoglobin heavy chain (substance), Immunoglobulin heavy chain, Immunoglobulin Heavy Chains [Chemical/Ingredient], Immunoglobulins, Heavy-Chain, Heavy Chains, Ig, Ig Heavy Chains, Immunoglobulin Heavy Chains, Heavy Chains, Immunoglobulin
Spanish Cadenas Pesadas de Inmunoglobulina, cadena pesada de inmunoglobulina, cadena pesada de inmunoglobulina (sustancia), inmunoglobulina de cadenas pesadas, inmunoglobulina de cadenas pesadas (sustancia), Cadena Pesada de Inmunoglobulinas
Swedish Immunglobulin, tung kedja
Czech těžké řetězce imunoglobulinů, imunoglobuliny - těžké řetězce
Finnish Raskasketjuimmunoglobuliinit
Italian Immunoglobulina a catena pesante, Immunoglobuline a catene pesanti
Polish Łańcuchy ciężkie immunoglobulin
Japanese Immunoglobulin重鎖, 免疫グロブリンH鎖, H鎖免疫グロブリン, Immunoglobulin H鎖, H鎖イムノグロブリン, 免疫グロブリン重鎖, 重鎖免疫グロブリン, H鎖グロブリン, 免疫グロブリン-H鎖, 免疫グロブリン-重鎖
French Chaînes lourdes des immunoglobulines, Chaines lourdes d'immunoglobuline, Chaines lourdes des Ig, Chaines H des immunoglobulines, Chaines lourdes d'Ig, Chaines lourdes des immunoglobulines
German Immunglobuline, Schwerketten-
Portuguese Cadeia Pesada de Imunoglobulinas, Cadeias Pesadas de Imunoglobulinas

Ontology: Immunoglobulin J-Chains (C0021035)

Definition (NCI) Immunoglobulin J chain (159 aa, ~18 kDa) is encoded by the human IGJ gene. This protein plays a role in the joining of antibody structures.
Definition (MSH) A 15 kD "joining" peptide that forms one of the linkages between monomers of IMMUNOGLOBULIN A or IMMUNOGLOBULIN M in the formation of polymeric immunoglobulins. There is one J chain per one IgA dimer or one IgM pentamer. It is also involved in binding the polymeric immunoglobulins to POLYMERIC IMMUNOGLOBULIN RECEPTOR which is necessary for their transcytosis to the lumen. It is distinguished from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN JOINING REGION which is part of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGION of the immunoglobulin light and heavy chains.
Concepts Amino Acid, Peptide, or Protein (T116) , Immunologic Factor (T129)
MSH D007144
SnomedCT 48111008
Swedish Immunglobulin, J-kedja
English IG J CHAINS, Immunoglobulin J-Chains [Chemical/Ingredient], IgJ Chain, Immunoglobulin J Chain, J Chain, Immunoglobulin, J piece, Immunoglobulin, J piece (substance), Ig J Peptide, Ig J-Peptide, Immunoglobulin J Chains, Immunoglobulin J Peptide, Immunoglobulin J Polypeptide, Immunoglobulin J-Chains, Immunoglobulin J-Peptide, J Chains, Immunoglobulin, J Polypeptide, Immunoglobulin, J-Chains, Immunoglobulin, J-Peptide, Ig, J-Peptide, Immunoglobulin, Polypeptide, Immunoglobulin J
Czech imunoglobuliny - J-řetězce, J-řetězce imunoglobulinů
Finnish J-ketjuimmunoglobuliinit
Polish Łańcuch J immunoglobulin
Japanese J鎖免疫グロブリン, J鎖, 免疫グロブリンJ鎖, J鎖イムノグロブリン, 免疫グロブリン-J鎖
French Chaines de jonction des immunoglobulines, Chaînes J des immunoglobulines, Chaines de jonction des Ig, Chaines J d'immunoglobulines, Chaines J des immunoglobulines, Peptide J, Pièce intermédiaire J
Spanish inmunoglobulina, porción J (sustancia), inmunoglobulina, porción J, Cadenas J de Inmunoglobulina, Cadenas J de las Inmunoglobulinas
German Immunglobuline, J-Ketten-, J-Ketten
Italian Immunoglobuline a catena J
Portuguese Cadeias J de Imunoglobulina

Ontology: Immunoglobulin Light Chains (C0021038)

Definition (NCI) A protein complex that consists of two light chains (kappa and lambda). The light chain molecules are of the same structure and composition, consisting of constant, variable, and hypervariable regions.
Definition (MSH) Polypeptide chains, consisting of 211 to 217 amino acid residues and having a molecular weight of approximately 22 kDa. There are two major types of light chains, kappa and lambda. Two Ig light chains and two Ig heavy chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) make one immunoglobulin molecule.
Concepts Amino Acid, Peptide, or Protein (T116) , Immunologic Factor (T129)
MSH D007147
SnomedCT 87316007
LNC LP15155-2, MTHU002541
English Immunoglobulin Light Chain, Immunoglobulin Light-Chain, Immunoglobulins, Light Chain, Light Chain Immunoglobulins, Light Chain, Immunoglobulin, Light-Chain Immunoglobulins, Light-Chain, Immunoglobulin, IG LIGHT CHAINS, LIGHT CHAIN IG, IG LIGHT CHAIN, Immunoglobulin Light Chains [Chemical/Ingredient], Ig Light Chain, Immunoglobulin, light chain, Immunoglobulin light chains, Immunoglobulin, light chain (substance), Immunoglobulin, light chain, NOS, Immunoglobulins, Light-Chain, Chains, Immunoglobulin Light, Immunoglobulin Light Chains, Light Chains, Immunoglobulin
Swedish Immunglobulin, lätt kedja
Czech lehké řetězce imunoglobulinů, imunoglobuliny - lehké řetězce
Finnish Kevytketjuimmunoglobuliinit
Italian Immunoglobulina a catena leggera, Immunoglobuline a catene leggere
Polish Łańcuchy lekkie immunoglobulin
Japanese Immunoglobulin軽鎖, 免疫グロブリンL鎖, 免疫グロブリン軽鎖, L鎖イムノグロブリン, Immunoglobulin L鎖, L鎖免疫グロブリン, 軽鎖免疫グロブリン, 免疫グロブリン-L鎖, 免疫グロブリン-軽鎖
French Chaines légères des immunoglobulines, Chaines légères d'Ig, Chaînes légères des immunoglobulines, Chaines légères d'immunoglobuline, Chaines L des imunoglobulines, Chaines légères des Ig
Spanish inmunoglobulina, cadena liviana (sustancia), inmunoglobulina, cadena liviana, Cadena Ligera de Inmunoglobulinas, Cadenas Ligeras de Inmunoglobulina
German Immunglobuline, Leichtketten-
Portuguese Cadeia Leve de Imunoglobulinas, Cadeias Leves de Imunoglobulina

Ontology: Ligands (C0023688)

Definition (NCI) An ion, molecule or molecular group that binds to a substance to form a larger complex.(Dr. Joseph A. Thie)
Definition (MSH) A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Definition (CSP) molecule that binds to another molecule, especially a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule.
Concepts Chemical (T103)
MSH D008024
French Ligands
Swedish Ligander
Czech ligandy
Finnish Ligandit
Croatian LIGANDI
English ligand, ligands, Ligand, Ligands
Polish Ligandy, Addenty
Spanish Ligantes, Ligandos
German Liganden
Italian Ligandi
Portuguese Ligantes

Ontology: Immunoglobulin Variable Region (C0877857)

Definition (NCI) The portion of an antibody molecule that contains the three hypervariable regions in both the heavy and light chains. It is comprised of the amino terminal half of the light chains and at most a third of the heavy chains from the amino termini.
Definition (MSH) That region of the immunoglobulin molecule that varies in its amino acid sequence and composition, and comprises the binding site for a specific antigen. It is located at the N-terminus of the Fab fragment of the immunoglobulin. It includes hypervariable regions (COMPLEMENTARITY DETERMINING REGIONS) and framework regions.
Concepts Amino Acid, Peptide, or Protein (T116) , Immunologic Factor (T129)
MSH D007135
SnomedCT 13718001, 83454007
English Immunoglobulin V, Immunoglobulin Variable Region, Variable Region, Ig, Variable Region, Immunoglobulin, Antibody variable region, Immunoglobulin Variable Region [Chemical/Ingredient], Antibody variable region (substance), Ig Variable Regions, Immunoglobulin Variable Regions, Regions, Immunoglobulin Variable, Variable Regions, Ig, Variable Regions, Immunoglobulin, Immunoglobulin, variable region, Immunoglobulin, variable region (substance), Ig Variable Region
Swedish Variabel del av immunglobulin
Czech imunoglobuliny - variabilní region
Finnish Immunoglobuliinin muuttuva alue
French Région variable d'Ig, Région variable d'immunoglobuline, Région variable de l'immunoglobuline, Immunoglobuline V
Japanese 免疫グロブリン可変領域, Immunoglobulin可変領域, Ig可変部, 可変領域-免疫グロブリン
Italian Immunoglobulina V, Regione variabile delle Ig, Regione variabile delle immunoglobuline
Polish Region zmienny immunoglobulin
Croatian Not Translated[Immunoglobulin Variable Region]
Spanish región variable de un anticuerpo, región variable de un anticuerpo (sustancia), inmunoglobulina, región variable (sustancia), inmunoglobulina, región variable, Región Variable de Ig, Región Variable de Inmunoglobulina
Norwegian Not Translated[Immunoglobulin Variable Region]
German Immunglobulin, Variable Region, Variable Region, Ig-, Variable Region, Immunglobulin-
Dutch Immunoglobuline, variabele regio, Variabele regio, Ig, Variabele regio, immunoglobuline
Portuguese Região Variável de Ig, Região Variável de Imunoglobulina