II. Epidemiology

  1. Digoxin Toxicity was common with standard dose Digoxin (Incidence 7-20%)
    1. Lower doses used since in the U.S. has resulted in decreased toxicity

III. Risk Factors

IV. Symptoms

VI. Labs

  1. Serum Digoxin Level over 2.5 mg/ml
    1. Does not always correlate with toxicity
    2. Toxicity may occur at low levels and not at high ones
  2. Electrocardiogram
    1. Dysrhythmia
      1. Bradycardia
      2. Premature beats
      3. Bigeminy
      4. Paroxysmal Atrial Tachycardia with 2:1 AV Block
      5. Atrial Fibrillation
      6. Nodal rhythm
      7. Ventricular Tachycardia
    2. T Wave inversion
    3. Sagging or "scooped out" ST Depression
    4. PR interval increased

VII. Management

  1. Stop Digoxin
  2. Correct Hypokalemia (and other electrolyte abnormalities)
    1. Use caution if Heart Block is present
  3. Treat associated arrhythmias appropriately
  4. Rehydrate to improve Renal Function
    1. Improved Renal Function will lower Digoxin levels
  5. Avoid potentially harmful interventions
    1. Calcium infusion (e.g. Calcium Chloride or Calcium Gluconate)
      1. "Stone heart" theoretical concern that intracellular calcium is already high in Digoxin Toxicity
      2. However original theory was from the 1950s and recent studies fail to find significant effect
      3. Levine (2011) J Emerg Med 40(1):41-6 +PMID:19201134 [PubMed]
    2. Catecholamines
    3. Electrical Cardioversion or transcutaneous pacing
      1. Digoxin Toxicity results in a hyperexcitable Myocardium at risk for malignant arrhythmia (VF, VT)
      2. Safe if Digoxin Level is under 2 ng/ml
      3. Use lowest possible energy if needed (start at 10-20 J and increase in 10-20 J increments)
  6. Facilitate Digitalis neutralization and elimination
    1. Anti-Digoxin antibodies (see below)
    2. Dialysis (consider in refractory toxicity)
  7. Measures for refractory cardiovascular collapse
    1. Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation (VA-ECMO)

VIII. Management: Anti-Digoxin antibodies

  1. DigiFab (or DigitalisAntibody Fragment Therarapy, preferred over Digibind)
    1. Mechanism
      1. Binds free Digoxin and complexes are renally excreted
    2. Indications
      1. Digoxin Toxicity (dysrhythmia, Serum Potassium >5.5, Altered Mental Status)
      2. Acute Digoxin ingestion >10 mg in adults and >4 mg (or 0.1 mg/kg) in children
      3. Chronic Digoxin Toxicity with significant dysrhythmia or Hyperkalemia
    3. Dosing
      1. One vial or 40 mg binds 0.5 mg Digoxin
      2. Acute toxicity: 5 vials (repeat as needed)
      3. Chronic toxicity: 3-6 vials for adults (1-2 for children)
    4. Adverse effects
      1. Postural Hypotension
      2. Hypokalemia
      3. Allergic Reactions (less common than with Digibind)
    5. Efficacy
      1. Only partial benefit in chronic toxicity (lowers level but does not correct Hyperkalemia or Bradycardia)
      2. Chan (2016) Clin Toxicol 54(6):488-94 +PMID: 27118413 [PubMed]
    6. References
      1. Watts and Lovecchio (2016) Crit Dec Emerg Med 30(12): 24
  2. Digibind (40 mg/vial)
    1. Replaced by DigiFab (due to fewer Hypersensitivity Reaction)
    2. Indications
      1. Massive digoxin Overdose
      2. Refractory Digitalis Toxicity
    3. Calculate vials needed based on Digoxin level
    4. Vials = (Digoxin Level in ng/ml) x (WtKg)/100

IX. References

  1. Orman and Hayes in Herbert (2017) EM:Rap 17(4): 6-7

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Ontology: Digitalis toxicity (C0012254)

Concepts Injury or Poisoning (T037)
English digitalis toxicity, Digitalis toxicity, Digitalis Toxicity
Spanish Toxicidad digitálica
Portuguese Toxicidade digitálica
Italian Tossicità da digitale
German Toxizitaet von Digitalis
French Toxicité digitalique
Dutch digitalisvergiftiging
Czech Toxicita digitalisu
Japanese ジギタリス毒性, ジギタリスドクセイ
Hungarian Digitálisz toxicitás

Ontology: Poisoning by digoxin (C0274727)

Concepts Injury or Poisoning (T037)
SnomedCT 10385009
English digoxin toxicity (diagnosis), digoxin toxicity, toxicity from digoxin, digoxin poisoning, toxicity digoxin, digoxin intoxication, digoxin toxicities, Poisoning by digoxin, Digoxin poisoning, Digoxin toxicity, Poisoning by digoxin (disorder)
Spanish Intoxicación por digoxina, intoxicación por digoxina (trastorno), intoxicación por digoxina, toxicidad por digoxina
Portuguese Toxicidade de digoxina
Italian Tossicità da digossina
German Toxizitaet von Digoxin
French Intoxication digitalique
Dutch digoxinevergiftiging
Czech Toxicita digoxinu
Japanese ジゴキシン毒性, ジゴキシンドクセイ
Hungarian Digoxin toxicitás

Ontology: Digibind (C0687706)

Concepts Amino Acid, Peptide, or Protein (T116) , Immunologic Factor (T129)
MSH C050199
English Digibind, DigiBind, digibind