II. Indications

III. Precautions

  1. Transcutaneous Pacing is a temporizing measure only until definitive transvenous pacing can be achieved

IV. Technique

  1. Apply pacer pads (Defibrillator/cardioversion pads) in Anterior-Posterior Positioning
    1. Anterior-posterior position is more likely to achieve capture than anterior-lateral position
    2. Moayedi (2022) Resuscitation 181:140-146 +PMID: 36410605 [PubMed]
    3. Moayedi (2022) Circulation 146(14):1103-4 +PMID: 36191069 [PubMed]
  2. Connect pads to monitor
  3. Start Procedural Sedation and Analgesia (current >50 mA is intolerable without sedation)
  4. Turn pacing rate to 60 to 80 bpm or (>30 beats per minute above the patient's intrinsic Heart Rate)
  5. Set the current starting at 10 mA and increase in 10 mA intervals until capture is indicated on the monitor
    1. Current of 50 to 100 mA is usually required
    2. Increase current 10 mA above the capture threshold
  6. If capture is not reached by current of 120 to 130 mA, stop, reposition pads, and restart at 70 mA
  7. Confirm capture by checking patient's pulse or POCUS Chest
    1. Pulse Oximeter may register a false pulse due to Muscle Twitches despite lack of cardiac capture

V. Resources

  1. Transcutaneous Pacing (Nickson, Life in the Fastlane)
    1. https://litfl.com/transcutaneous-pacing/
  2. Transcutaneous Pacing (Open Anesthesia)
    1. https://www.openanesthesia.org/transcutaneous_pacing/

VI. References

  1. Moayedi and Swaminathan in Swadron (2023) EM:Rap 23(5): 8-9

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