II. General

  1. Sleep when you can, Eat whatever you can
  2. Tasks take 3-4 times as long in the cold

III. Preparation

  1. Acclimatization requires 3 days minimum
  2. Train for aerobic fitness and upper body strength
  3. Train for mental conditioning for difficult treks
  4. Learn to swim
  5. Learn basic knots (e.g. Bowline)
  6. Learn to relax and maintain a sense of humor
  7. Review the use of Map and compass
  8. Review landmarks and key terrain of travel area

IV. Management: In the case of being lost

  1. STOP Mnemonic
    1. Stop
    2. Think
    3. Orient
    4. Plan
  2. Can survive for:
    1. Three minutes without air
      1. First secure ventilation
    2. Three hours without warmth
      1. Establish shelter, clothing, fire
      2. Rest
      3. Signal for help
        1. Mirror, flashlight, whistle or smoke
        2. Create geometric patterns on the ground
    3. Three days without water
      1. Establish a water source
    4. Three weeks without food
      1. Secure food last

V. Management: Clothing for temperate wilderness travel

  1. General
    1. Keep clothes dry: Protect in water-proof stuff sack
    2. Keep most of skin covered with long sleeves and pants
  2. Layered approach to wilderness clothing
    1. Layer 1: Polypropylene
    2. Layer 2: Cotton, wool, or pile
    3. Layer 3: Synthetic or wool
    4. Layer 4: Gore-Tex
  3. Protect high risk areas from Frostbite
    1. Preparation
      1. Bring 3 sets of gloves, socks, and hats
    2. Head Protection
      1. Wide brim hat or balaclava (wool mask)
    3. Hand Protection
      1. Shell: Gore-Tex
      2. Liner: Poly or wool
    4. Foot Protection
      1. Leather, waterproof footwear above the ankle

VI. Management: Survival kit

  1. See First Aid Wilderness Kit
  2. General rules
    1. Keep it with you at all times
    2. Use quality, multi-use items
    3. Improvise with items at hand
      1. Example: tear car apart for rugs
    4. Replace and repair as needed
  3. Example kit
    1. Start with waterproof match container
      1. Wrap with duct tape
      2. Wrap with rope, string or wire
      3. Wrap with aluminum foil (signal mirror, cooking)
      4. Place strike anywhere matches inside
      5. Glue small round compass inside lid
    2. Other items to include
      1. Penlight
      2. Compass
      3. Lifesavers
      4. Canteen
      5. Knife (10 cm)
      6. Signal mirror

VII. Management: Shelter Options

  1. General
    1. Goal Temperature for comfort: 32 degrees Fahrenheit
  2. Tent
    1. Experiment with tent before trip
    2. No tent better than another for winter camping
  3. Tarp
    1. Lay over level ground
  4. Trench
    1. Dig rectangular trench, the size of a sleeping bag
    2. Lay sleeping bag within trench
    3. Cover the sleeping bag with available clothing
  5. Dead spruce tree
    1. Gut the inside to create an insulated bed
  6. Quonset Hut (Snow shelter) construction tools
    1. Scoop shovel with short handle
    2. Edged sheet of metal for scooping snow
    3. Snow saw (or wood saw)
    4. Knife
  7. Lean-To

VIII. Management: Water

  1. See Water Disinfection
  2. Daily water requirement: 4-6 liters per day
    1. Replace normal losses and sweat
    2. Metabolism
    3. Humidify inspired air
  3. Try to warm fluids before intake
    1. Drains energy to heat water
  4. Drink considerable water in the morning
  5. Carry at least 4 liters in backpack
  6. Keep a large bag of snow by the fire
    1. Water supply constantly replenished as it melts

IX. Management: Food

  1. See Nutrition for Athletes
  2. Daily Caloric Needs in cold: 4000-5000 Kcals/day
  3. Carbohydrates are initially important
  4. Fats gain increased importance the longer in wilderness
    1. Important for thermogenesis
  5. Warm food before eating (reduces Energy Expenditure)

X. Resources

  1. Craighead (2016) How to Survive on Land and Sea, Navy Institute Press
    1. Paid link to Amazon.com (ISBN 0870212788)

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