II. Physiology

  1. Riboflavin (Vitamin B2) is a heat stable, water-soluble flavin in the B Vitamin family
  2. Riboflavin is a component of succinate dehydrogenase and acetyl CoA dehydrogenase
  3. Riboflavin is converted to coenzymes, flavin mononucleotide (FMN) and Flavin Adenine Dinucleotide (FAD)
    1. Riboflavin derived coenzymes are Important hydrogen (and electron) donor/receiver in Redox Reactions (FADH2, FMNH2)
    2. Electron Transport Chain (cellular respiration)
    3. Cytochrome P450 Hydroxylase system
  4. Other functions
    1. Pyridoxine activation
    2. Niacin synthesis from Tryptophan
    3. Metabolism of fat, Protein and Carbohydrate
    4. Glutathione reductase mediated detoxification
    5. Maintains Red Blood Cell integrity, as well as that of the integument (hair, nails, skin)

III. Preparations: Dietary Sources

  1. Liver
  2. Milk and dairy products
  3. lean Meat
  4. Poultry
  5. Fish
  6. Dark green vegetables
    1. Spinach
    2. Asparagus
  7. Eggs
  8. Whole-grain and enriched cereals, pasta, bread
  9. Mushrooms
  10. Dried beans and peas

IV. Signs: Deficiency

  1. Angular Cheilitis or Angular Stomatitis
  2. Cheilosis
  3. Gingivitis
  4. Photophobia
  5. Tongue changes
    1. Atrophic lingual papillae
    2. Hypertrophic filiform and Fungiform Papillae

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