II. Physiology

  1. Water-soluble B-Vitamin
  2. Biotin is found in many foods (nuts, whole grains, fruits, vegetables)
  3. Biotin is a Cofactor in multiple enzymes (e.g. Glucose and Fatty Acid production)
  4. Only small amounts of Biotin are needed
    1. Recommended daily intake: 30 mcg/day (men and women, including pregnancy)

III. Pathophysiology: Biotin Deficiency

  1. Biotin deficiency is rare
  2. Biotin deficiency may manifest as hair thinning
  3. Risk Factors
    1. Pregnancy (but Prenatal Vitamins have adequate Biotin)
    2. Consumption of raw egg whites
      1. Raw egg whites contain avidin protein which prevents Biotin absorption
      2. Cooking egg whites denatures and deactivates the avidin protein

IV. Precautions

  1. No high quality evidence for Biotin supplementation
  2. Many OTC products contain high dose Biotin (>300 up to 5000 mcg/day)
    1. High dose Biotin is found in supplements marketed for hair, skin or Nail Growth
    2. Low dose Biotin (e.g. 30 mcg in Multivitamins)
    3. High dose Biotin Interferes with lab assays (see below)
    4. Hold Biotin 3 days before lab testing

V. Labs: High Dose Biotin (>300 mcg/day) falsely LOWERS other lab levels

VI. Labs: High Dose Biotin (>300 mcg/day) falsely RAISES other lab levels

VII. References

  1. (2018) Presc Lett 25(2)
  2. LoVecchio Crit Dec Emerg Med (2018) 32(5): 32

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Ontology: Biotin (C0005575)

Definition (NCI_NCI-GLOSS) A nutrient in the vitamin B complex that the body needs in small amounts to function and stay healthy. Biotin helps some enzymes break down substances in the body for energy and helps tissues develop. It is found in yeast, whole milk, egg yolks, and organ meats. Biotin is water-soluble (can dissolve in water) and must be taken in every day. Not enough biotin can cause skin, nerve, and eye disorders. Biotin is present in larger amounts in some cancer tissue than in normal tissue. Attaching biotin to substances used to treat some types of cancer helps them find cancer cells.
Definition (NCI) Hexahydro-2-oxo-1H-thieno(3,4-d)imidazole-4-pentanoic acid. Growth factor present in minute amounts in every living cell. It occurs mainly bound to proteins or polypeptides and is abundant in liver, kidney, pancreas, yeast, and milk. The biotin content of cancerous tissue is higher than that of normal tissue.
Definition (NCI_CRCH) Water-soluble vitamin that is a coenzyme in bicarbonate-dependent carboxylation.
Definition (MSH) A water-soluble, enzyme co-factor present in minute amounts in every living cell. It occurs mainly bound to proteins or polypeptides and is abundant in liver, kidney, pancreas, yeast, and milk.
Definition (CSP) water-soluble, enzyme cofactor present in minute amounts in every living cell; occurs mainly bound to proteins or polypeptides and is abundant in liver, kidney, pancreas, yeast, and milk.
Concepts Organic Chemical (T109) , Vitamin (T127) , Pharmacologic Substance (T121)
MSH D001710
SnomedCT 13813003, 8919000
LNC LP15451-5, MTHU008664
English Vitamin H, 1H-Thieno(3,4-d)imidazole-4-pentanoic acid, hexahydro-2-oxo-, (3aS-(3aalpha,4beta,6aalpha))-, coenzyme R, vitamins biotin, biotin (medication), 5-(3-oxo-7-thia-2,4-diazabicyclo[3.3.0]oct-8-yl)pentanoic acid, Biotin, Biotin [Chemical/Ingredient], BIOTIN, coenzyme r, h vitamin, vitamin h, biotin, H, Vitamin, (+)-Biotin, -(+)-Biotin, Vitamin B-7, vitamin H, Biotin preparation, Coenzyme R, Biotin (substance), Biotin preparation (product), Biotin preparation (substance)
Swedish Biotin
Czech biotin
Finnish Biotiini
Italian Vitamina H, Biotina
Russian BIOTIN, VITAMIN H, БИОТИН, ВИТАМИН H
Spanish preparado con biotina (producto), biotina (producto), preparado con biotina, biotina (sustancia), biotina, coenzima R, preparado de biotina (sustancia), vitamina H, Biotina, Vitamina H
Croatian BIOTIN
Polish Biotyna, Witamina H
Japanese 抗卵白障害因子, ビオチン, D-(+)-ビオチン, D-ビオチン, d-ビオチン, コエンザイムR, ビオエピデルム, ビオスIIb, ビオスII, ビタミンB7, ビタミンH, ファクターS(ビタミン), 補酵素R
Norwegian Biotin, Vitamin H
French Biotine, Vitamine B8, Vitamine H
German Biotin, Vitamin H
Portuguese Biotina, Vitamina H