III. Types

  1. Replaces Carbohydrates with higher fat and Protein
    1. Atkins Diet
    2. Carbohydrate Addict's Diet
  2. Replaces high Glycemic IndexCarbohydrates with low
    1. South Beach Diet
    2. Sugar Busters!

IV. Mechanism

  1. Ketogenic Diet mimics Fasting state or Starvation Ketosis
  2. Carbohydrate intake is as low as 5%, replaced primarily by fat intake as high as 75% (remaining 20% Protein)

V. Efficacy

  1. No longterm data beyond one year
  2. Effective in the short-term for weight loss
    1. More effective than Low Fat Diet in first 6 months
    2. Similar efficacy to Low Fat Diet at one year
  3. References
    1. Foster (2003) N Engl J Med 348:2082-90 [PubMed]
    2. Stern (2004) Ann Intern Med 140:778-85 [PubMed]

VI. Adverse Effects

  1. Constipation (due to decreased fiber intake)
  2. Gout exacerbation (due to increased Uric Acid)
  3. Risk of Osteoporosis (due to calciuria)
  4. Nutritional deficiency risk
    1. Vitamin A
    2. Vitamin B6
    3. Vitamin C
    4. Vitamin E
    5. Thiamine
    6. Folic Acid
    7. Iron
    8. Potassium
  5. Higher fat content risks (with Atkin's and similar)
    1. These diets do not seem to adversely effect lipids
    2. However theororetic risk related to higher fats:
      1. High fat associated with Coronary Artery Disease
      2. High fat associated with Breast Cancer

VII. Precautions

  1. No longterm safety or efficacy data on these diets
  2. Do not eliminate vegetables, fruits from diet longterm
  3. Consider supplementing while on these diets
    1. Fiber supplementation
    2. Multivitamin Supplement

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